The aim of the present study was to investigate how three specific music festivals, situated in the Barents region, contributed to development of local identity in their respective host municipalities. The aim was further explored through three research questions focussing on 1) how the festivals cooperated with local agents; 2) how the festivals participated in and contributed to processes of glocalisation; and 3) what kinds of stories that were told through the festivals about their respective host municipalities. The festivals investigated was the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord-Norge (Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Finland). The study was grounded in modernity theory as well as previous research on festivals’ contribution to development of local identity. Concerning the methodological aspects of the study, it was designed using an embedded multiple case-design, in which each of the festivals constituted one case and the three research questions functioned as the cases’ units of analysis. Hence, within-case as well as cross-case analysis was enabled. The empirical data consisted of field notes from participant observation of in all 58 festival events; interviews with the festivals’ directors and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation in the form of festival programmes. The findings showed that all three festivals had extensive cooperation with a wide selection of local agents or stakeholders but also that the range and profoundness of this coopera tion seemed to depend on the festival management’s awareness of and focus towards the necessity of building and maintaining stakeholder relationships. This awareness seemed further to depend on the festival’s perceived self-identity, its degree of professionalism and institutional status. Regarding the participation in and contribution to processes of glocalisation, 17 aspects were found that were divided into the categories of reaching out; letting in; facilitating for meetings; and musical glocalisation. The festivals were seen to be narrators of history as well as telling meta-narratives about their host municipalities and thereby producing and reproducing collective self-images. The latter was exemplified in the Festspel i Pite Älvdal emphasising the local municipality as a centre in its own reality; the Festspillene i Nord-Norge strengthening the urban and displaying strong, international bonds; and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali emphasising connections towards other peripheral and rural communities.
In this document, the Spanish Crowdfunding Association has exposed all the details related with tax liabilities and formalities in Spain. They have taken into account all types of crowdfunding and points of view of donors and entrepreneurs.
This short report is focused on a survey carried out to some of the Spanish crowdfunding platforms. Results are brief and general, but useful to imagine the Spanish context.
The rise of crowdfunding as a more distributed way to form capital is aligned with the changes in the flow and distribution of information (via the Internet) and the creation and distribution of manufacturing capabilities (maker spaces and fabrication centers). Existing securities regulations were not crafted for the social web. Governments and policy experts worldwide are considering the possible impact of crowdfunding and crowdfund investing and trying to fashion new regulations, empower new technologies, and equip entrepreneurs with sufficient information to decide if crowdfunding is a viable funding or investment vehicle for these enterprises. The rate of growth of crowdfunding, and its emergence in developing and developed countries, suggests that this phenomenon can become a tool in the innovation ecosystems of most countries.
This study is focused on understanding the reasons why was crowdfunding born and its rise in Spain. The researchers surveyed more than 4.000 Internet users living in Spain. With this data, they have achieved interesting conclusions about the phenomena which influences knowledge and tendency to accept crowdfunding; how is social perception among people who know it; which are the main barriers and attractions to use it; and which are the reservations Internet users have about it.
This study is focused on understanding the reasons why backers finance projects with crowdfunding. Researchers surveyed more than 4.000 Lánzanos users, one of the biggest crowdfunding platforms in Spain. With this data, they have achieved interesting conclusions about the main reasons that motivate donors to invest/donate their money, about different types of backers who coexist depending on their behavior, and about principal projects characteristics which attract or discourage backers.
President Obama called crowdfund investing “game-changing” when he signed the JOBS Act into law on April 5, 2012. Using average American can use to invest in entrepreneurs they believe in and local businesses they trust. Prior to this law, only accredited investors had this opportunity. If Americans invest just 1% of their savings via crowdfund investing, this policy change will deliver over $300 billion to the small businesses, which will stimulate entrepreneurship, innovation and job creation. These results are achieved without any US government spending. Authors argue that crowdfund investing shouldn’t be a part of a solution to economic crises in the United States alone, but that it can be a global solution as well. This paper explores how governments can unlock the power of crowdfund investing by enabling and business innovation.
This paper is structured to give a concise overview of the state of crowdfunding in Europe, with the aim of establishing policy and a distinct framework for the European crowdfunding industry.
To maintain the integrity and proper ethics of crowdfunding in Europe, authors believe it is essential to create a framework of best practices and suggest a three pillar approach: regulation, education and research. In this paper, it is outlined a number of potential policies and regulations which authors believe offer a good star- ting point for a broader discussion.
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