The new digital economy seemingly is leading to the disappearance of intermediaries. Externalities and the ongoing comparison of competitors favor dominant players; creators and producers also can distribute their content directly to consumers, bypassing any intermediaries. This movement exhibits some contradictory tendencies though. Online transactions give space to various unforeseen intermediation patterns involving contractual relations, information processing, and customer relations. In doing so, they alter cultural sectors and fundamentally challenge traditional organizations and revenues. This overhaul particularly affects economic actors, selection and creative processes, distribution channels, and cultural practices, as well as production structures. Accordingly, the Internet has had notable effects on the complexity of artistic and cultural markets. Various cultural fields thus reveal the emergence and simultaneous development of different ways to create, produce, make available, and charge for contents—that is, different business models. These unfamiliar intermediations drive reorganizations of cultural industries, because they invent innovative economic terms, restructure common forms of creation and recommendation, prompt new forms of entrepreneurship, and stimulate competition by newcomers. This study scrutinizes all these reconfigurations according to three current developments in cultural industries: the vast increase of available contents, the solid entrepreneurial dynamics in online markets, and renewed business models.
This study analyzes how hard and soft conditions influence the development of entrepreneurship in cultural and creative industries (CCIs). The study further examines what influence the context has on the effect of these conditions. A multiple multivariate regression analysis examines the importance of both the hard and soft conditions to explain the differences between the United Kingdom and the Mediterranean countries of Portugal, Spain, and Greece. The sample comprises 123 entrepreneurs from the four countries. The use of this method represents an important contribution to the understanding of entrepreneurship dynamics and for the further fine-tuning of entrepreneurship policies in CCIs in different contexts.
Movie industry experts continuously debate whether the industry's enormous investments in stars pay off. Although a rich body of research has addressed the question of whether stars are critical to the success of movies, previous research does not provide a consistent picture of the impact of stars on the economic success of the respective product. To derive empirical generalizations, the authors (1) provide a meta-analysis of the relationship between star power and movie success based on 61 primary studies reporting 172 effects of star power on movie success and (2) analyze a comprehensive dataset from that industry with n = 1545 movies using two different types of star power measures (commercial and artistic success), while controlling for selection effects of stars. Based on these two studies, four empirical generalizations emerge. First, when ignoring selection effects of stars, the impact of star power on box office revenues is strongly upwards biased. Second, artistic star power is associated with significantly lower box office revenues than commercial star power. Third, on average, movies with a commercially successful star generate 12.46 million US$ additional box office revenues. In contrast, artistic star power does not result in a statistically significant revenue premium. Fourth, commercially (artistically) successful stars have a statistically significant “multiplier effect” of 1.127 (1.083) on other characteristics that influence a movie's box office revenues.
Firms and governments increasingly see creative industries as hubs of managerial innovation and experimentation. The opening essay to this special issue examines the role of creative industries as pioneers and highly visible adopters of new organizational and business practices. The paper next focuses on four themes that are especially salient to this process. The first theme looks at creative industries as celebrity industries that popularize and legitimize organizational and business practices. The second theme examines the lessons that relatively low levels of value chain integration have for other industries that are in the process of value chain transformation. The third theme looks at the creative industries and the rise of the experience economy. The fourth theme argues that historical patterns of employment and self-employment in the creative industries foreshadow many of the issues that are experienced by the wider economy. A discussion of the seven papers appearing this special section concludes this introduction.
The purpose of this paper is to draw a clear picture of creative and cultural industries and of the creative economy, as driving factors of economic growth and local development. To this aim, the paper analyzes some recent data on the significance of the creative economies, reflecting on the concepts of creative and cultural industries. In the text, attention is paid to the links between creative economy and local development on one hand, and the concepts of territorial capital and social capital on the other side.
In the end, the work focuses on presenting the results of an in-progress study, about the recent literature on the mentioned issues, presenting a brief overview of some significant works.
The rapidly developing relationship between tourism and creativity, arguably heralds a ‘creative turn’ in tourism studies. Creativity has been employed to transform traditional cultural tourism, shifting from tangible heritage towards more intangible culture and greater involvement with the everyday life of the destination. The emergence of ‘creative tourism’ reflects the growing integration between tourism and different placemaking strategies, including promotion of the creative industries, creative cities and the ‘creative class’. Creative tourism is also arguably an escape route from the serial reproduction of mass cultural tourism, offering more flexible and authentic experiences which can be co-created between host and tourist. However the gathering critique also highlights the potential dangers of creative hype and commodification of everyday life.
This paper examines the role of place and spatial boundaries for the creative industries. Evidence from interviews with 70 workers in the advertising industry in London reveals the importance of geographical clustering for workers in this sector despite the potential of digital technologies. Creative firms are embedded in place, where the importance of urban aesthetics and social networks leads to tight geographic clustering. The aim of this paper is (i) to explore how and why geography matters for workers in the ‘new’ or ‘changing’ economy and (ii) how this creates a shared identity between creative workers. The article concludes that despite technological breakthroughs that have caused the death of distance, it turns out that geography is still important.
Creativity cognitive style refers to individual differences in perceiving, behaving, solving problems, taking decisions, and relating to others in the creative process, whereas conflict handling style depicts individuals' behavior in response to interpersonal conflicts. Leaders' conflict management has profound impacts on group outcomes, though little work has been done to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs' creativity cognitive style, conflict handling style, and career success in creative industry sectors. Structural equation modeling is used to examine the hypotheses on a sample of 251 creative entrepreneurs in Taiwan. Results indicate that creative entrepreneurs' cognitive style influences entrepreneurial success through affecting conflict handling style. Based on the theories of cognitive psychology and conflict management, this paper sheds light on the missing link between entrepreneurial cognition and conflict handling in the entrepreneurship domain.
Various national and international communities have addressed women's issues and taken various efforts to empower them so as to enhance their social and health status and involve them in developmental activities. Empowerment as delegation of power to someone has been a mechanism to increase personal and work life quality of woman in recent decades. Higher education and occupation is effective instrument to empowerment of women but culture role and creativity can’t be denied in this relation. This paper identifies how to empower women from poverty through creative industry. A case study was carried out in order to explore how women empowerment through creative industry is managed. Several recommendations are developed for how creative industry can participate in women empowerment. The case study develops some propositions which recommend how creative industry can have an important role in the empowerment of women. The limitation of this research is study only conducted at creative industry. Further qualitative research at other types of industries is required to investigate application of such recommendations.
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