As a new cultural industry, digital game development is located between the sectors of culture and trade. While Norwegian game development is defined today as a matter for the Ministry of Culture, the industry is asking for a more holistic policy that includes trade policies. This article discusses Norwegian game policies with point of departure in research interviews with four Norwegian game developers and argues that trade policies are already included in the existing cultural policy.
As the game industry continues to grow and expand its target market to nearly every person with access to an Internet connection, the capabilities needed to gain a competitive advantage are changing too. This paper seeks to identify and reﬂect on the factors critical to success in the industry of video games and new factors that may arise and contribute to the future success of this dynamic and constantly changing industry. Starting from the analysis of the structure and dynamics of the value chain in the video games industry, this work will discuss the most important changes that have taken place caused by the emergence of the Internet, in an attempt to redeﬁne and understand the new rules and opportunities for companies and players. These last have empowered their role and companies may now understand better the needs and demands of their current and potential players. Business models of video games are constantly evolving to fully adapt to the needs and preferences of users in areas such as platforms (via the Web browser, mobile applications, etc.), forms of payment (pay per download, subscription, payment for access, game extensions, etc.), or gaming devices (game consoles, computers, smartphones, tablets, etc.). Finally, some aspects of the Norwegian ecosystem are analyzed
Fashion industry professionals’ viewpoints on creative traits and, strategies for creativity development
Through in-depth interviews, the study explored fashion industry professionals’ viewpoints, on creativity, focusing on traits of creative people and how creativity can be developed. Four creative, traits were identified, including different thought processes, determination, having an open mind, and, risk taking. About one-third of participants believed that creativity is innate, and therefore, some, people were born creative whereas others were not. Another third of participants maintained that, everyone has some creative potential that can be further developed. The remaining fashion, professionals distinguished artistic creativity from creative problem solving. Suggested strategies for, creativity enhancement and development included (1) practicing creative thinking strategies, (2), formal training, (3) diverse experiences and exposure to the world; and (4) creating a safe, yet, challenging environment.
Rapporten presenterer den samlede omsetningen for hver bransje ved å samle inn tall for tre hovedkategorier: salgsinntekter, opphavsrettsinntekter (vederlagsinntekter) og fremføringsinntekter.
Det er første gang det foreligger en samlet beskrivelse av den økonomiske omsetningen av visuell kunst i Norge. Nytt av året er også at statistikk for flere kunstbransjer blir samlet i én rapport. Kulturrådet har tidligere utgitt «Musikk i tall» og «Litteratur i tall» som egne publikasjoner. Sammenstillingen gir bedre oversikt og gjør det enklere å se de ulike næringene i en sammenheng. På det visuelle feltet er det samlet inn tall både for 2014 og 2015. På musikk- og litteraturfeltet presenteres utviklingen fra henholdsvis 2012 og 2013.
Tallmaterialet som er samlet inn gir grunnlag for å se noen overordnede trekk ved bransjene og gir også kunnskap om nyere utviklingstendenser. Eksempler på dette er veksten i det digitale markedet og utviklingen av kunsteksport.
Regionrformen vil innebære at fylker erstattes med regioner. Sammenlignet med fylkene vil regionene få en mer strategisk funksjon, men de vil også få økt forvaltningsansvar. Kultur er ett område hvor regionene kan få økt ansvar. Proba har i samarbeid med NIBR vurdert hvilke oppgaver på kulturområdet som kan overføres til regionene og hvordan dette kan gjøres. Den svenske ”Kultursamverkandsmodellen” har klare styrker og kan brukes som utgangspunkt. Det er KS som har finansiert utredningen.
Innovation and creativity are broadly used terms and Creative Economy concept is present in European and other countries policy documents, including EU policy, UNDP and other international organization strategies. In Latvia the use of the Creative Industries term increases, however the understanding of its implications often causes confusion, both among policy makers and the broader public. The aim of this article is to establish a better understanding of the principles of Cultural and Creative Industries and the concept of a Creative Economy using historical reasoning from relevant literature. Formal use of the term Creative Industries is quite recent (1994), marking the digital era of cultural industries and creativity. However there are roots back to the industrial revolution and urbanization, cultural industries from the 1930s, popular culture, ideology distributed through mass media and contra culture rebelling against the capitalist drive of mass culture.
The purpose of this paper is to provide economic modeling and its implications to government policy in promoting and financing innovation in the creative industries. First, we develop a rational expectation model with emphasis on network externalities (NE) within the creative industries, and on the moral hazard problem due to the presence of asymmetric information in a loan market for innovation. Interactions between firms' and banks' expectations play an important role in determining which of the two equilibria occurs: one with low NE and the other with high NE. Then, we show the effectiveness of policies that critically depend on the current equilibrium and how discrepancies between the expectations converge to a new equilibrium. This paper develops a theoretical model and also empirically tests some implications of the model using OECD country level data (2000–2013). The theoretical results show that policies aiming at promoting innovation in the creative industries actually decrease the equilibrium level of innovation as well as banks' confidence and network externalities in low NE equilibrium even with the presence of the positive effect of lowering the critical mass; the opposite outcomes are observed in high NE equilibrium. Other implications of government policies are also discussed.
This paper aims to define impact of creative industries (CI) on national economy in regard to sub-sectors. Employing systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature, as well as analysis of empirical data, authors define and classify the most important CI sub-sectors that impact national economy. Due to this, the value of this paper is theoretical definition, systematization and evaluation of the sub-sectors defining the impact of CI on national economy. The findings of this research provide the basis for targeted funding in order to foster and develop CI impact on national economy.
This paper reviews and synthesizes the research on how creative industry organizations (CIOs) achieve alignment ambidexterity and adaptability ambidexterity. This survey highlights the dominance of the contextual approach among CIOs, which arises through practices and processes of internal orientation and external engagement. The survey suggests promising areas for future research in clarifying the contingency factors through which various ambidexterity solutions are adopted in CIOs. These contingency factors include different forms of ambidexterity, concerns about paradoxical tensions, and industrial characteristics. These findings have useful implications for other economic sectors. The paper argues for an enriched ambidexterity research agenda in which creative industries deserve greater attention.
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