In from the Margins. A Contribution to the Debate on Culture and Development in Europe.

Council of Europe
In From the Margins addresses culture (which unlike education is difficult to harness to immediate economic returns) from a wider developmental point of view and offers the Council of Europe and its member states an opportunity to reflect on the importance they attach to culture from a new, integrated and comprehensive perspective. The report's central themes are two interlocking priorities: to bring the millions of dispossessed and disadvantaged Europeans in from the margins of society and cultural policy in from the margins of governance. A new alliance between culture and development should enable this change to occur.

Translocal spatiality

Ma, E. K.
SAGE Publication, London
5(2): 131–152

Instead of exploring the global/local logic of glocalization, this case study specifically concentrates on a form of local-to-local spatial dynamics. The spatial history of Hong Kong underground bandrooms is exploited to illustrate the translocal reproduction of spatiality. While the construction of this space was translocally inspired by music subculture from abroad, local spatiality absorbs transborder subcultural energies and re-channels them to become discursive resources for resisting local governmentality and the work- and-spend culture of transnational capitalistic discourse. Translocally inspired and locally accomplished, this underground site becomes a heterotopia in which very different spatial functions are set in juxtaposition. Beside inward heterotopian compression, it also connects outwardly to other translocal spaces of clubs, discos, hip-hop fashion shops and other localized spaces. This web of interconnected spaces provides and organizes the lifeworlds of a community of local graffitians, DJs and musicians, who mobilize transborder hip-hop and rock culture to construct and maintain a radically translocalized spatiality. 


"Cultural industries" in Sweden: An assessment of their place in the Swedish economy

Power, D.
Economic Geography
78(2): 103-127

This article attempts to define and measure cultural industries in Sweden. It starts with a discussion of the definition and delineation of the term "cultural industries," arguing that a large range of goods and services can be considered culture industry products and that it is important to place the production and exchange of such products in the context of an industrial systems approach. The concept is then operationalized using Swedish data on employment and the activity of firms. The results suggest that the overall growth in both employment and the number of firms has been especially strong in the cultural industries. However, the number of active firms has been growing at a much faster pace than employment in these industries, indicating a quickly changing business environment. With regard to regional dimensions, Swedish cultural industries have a strong attraction to urban areas but an even stronger propensity to agglomerate. It is suggested that the spatial dynamics observed may be key to the development of the industries' competencies and success. In summary, the article presents the results of an extensive data analysis that found that cultural industries make an important contribution to the Swedish economy and labor market. It concludes by suggesting issues that need further quantitative and qualitative study.


Kulturminner og næringsutvikling – eksemplene Møllebyen i Moss, Levanger, Inderøy og Stiklestad


Kulturarven kan være med på å utløse verdiskaping i form av næringsutvikling. Dette kan enten skje direkte, gjennom at virksomheter baseres på et kulturminne, kulturmiljø eller tradisjonsbåren kunnskap, eller indirekte gjennom at bevisst satsing på (lokal) kulturarv kan bidra til å gjøre en kommune eller et sted mer attraktivt både å bo i og å etablere næringsvirksomhet i. I Møllebyen i Moss og kommunene Levanger, Inderøy og Verdal har man i variert omfang lykkes i å kombinere næringsutvikling og vern. Eksemplene viser at langsiktig og sikker finansiering, formell forankring spesielt på kommunal nivå, lokalt og bredt engasjement og et velfungerende samarbeid mellom alle berørte parter er viktige faktorer for at satsingen skal lykkes.


Markedet og de kulturelle verdier: Kultur- og medienæringene i et samfunnsøkonomisk perspektiv

Bakke, E.
Handelshøyskolen BI

I samfunnsdebatten hevdes det ofte at aviser, bøker og kringkasting, på samme måte som scenekunst, opera, ballett, teater og konsertvirkomhet, har kulturelle verdier ut over den verdi disse varene og tjenesene blir verdsatt til i markedet. Man kan derfor ikke legge vanlige økonomiske lønnsomhetsbetraktninger til grunn når man skal vurdere disse næringers samfunnsmessige betydning. I denne utredningen tas denne påstand opp til kritisk drøfting. Utredningen tar sikte på å vise at eksistensen av kulturelle verdier eller andre eksternaliteter i medienæringene og i de næringer som produserer scenekunst, bør analyseres og korrigeres for på noenlunde samme måte som eksistensen av eksternaliteter blir trukket inn i samfunnsøkonomiske analyser av andre næringer. Man kan si at samfunnsøkonomi gjelder i realiteten akkurat dette, at summen av markedets utallige avgjørelser, avgjørelser som presumptivt er privatøkonomisk lønnsomme, ikke nødvendigvis adderer seg opp til noe som er samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomt eller optimalt. Spørsmålet er derfor heller hvorvidt de eksternaliteter vi vil stå overfor i medienæringene, de forhold som fører til at det er avvik mellom privatøkonomisk og samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet i disse næringene, er forskjellige fra de eksternaliteter som kan forekomme i andre næringer. Det faglige spørsmål blir hvordan myndighetene bør vurdere og eventuelt korrigere for de eksternaliteter som gjør seg gjeldende for kultur- og medievirksomheten. 


Gatewatching, Not Gatekeeping: Collaborative Online News

Bruns, A.
Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: quarterly journal of media research and resources
107, 31-44

This article introduces a new form of collaborative web-based editing which has become increasingly popular in recent years. It involves web users as reporters and co- roducers for specialist news sites by allowing them to submit their own news reports and pointers to relevant articles elsewhere on the web, and sometimes even hands over editorial control to the online community altogether. Websites of this type move on from traditional journalistic gatekeeping approaches, where editors publish only what they regard as 'fit to print', to what is here termed gatewatching, where almost all incoming material is publicised, but with varying degrees of emphasis. Gatewatching sites frequently become major repositories of specialist information, turning into resource centre sites for their interest community, and are particularly common on the fringes of the open source software development movement. Some of these sites can be seen to directly apply open source ideals (direct involvement of the community, open access to all aspects of the development process) to the reporting of news, in effect making news itself an open source


From cultural to creative industries An analysis of the implications of the “creative industries” approach to arts and media policy making in the United Kingdom

Garnham, N.
Journal of Cultural Policy
Volume 11, 2005 - Issue 1, p. 15-29

This article analyses the cultural policy implications in the United Kingdom of a shift in terminology from cultural to creative industries. It argues that the use of the term “creative industries” can only be understood in the context of information society policy. It draws its political and ideological power from the prestige and economic importance attached to concepts of innovation, information, information workers and the impact of information and communication technologies drawn from information society theory. This sustains the unjustified claim of the cultural sector as a key economic growth sector within the global economy and creates a coalition of disparate interests around the extension of intellectual property rights. In the final analysis, it legitimates a return to an artist‐centred, supply side defence of state cultural subsidies that is in contradiction to the other major aim of cultural policy – wider access.


Cultural industries and cultural plicy

Hesmondhalgh, D.,
Pratt, A.C.
International Journal of Cultural Policy
Volume 11, 2005 - Issue 1, p. 1-13

This article analyses and contextualises a variety of relationships between the cultural industries and cultural policy. A principal aim is to examine policies explicitly formulated as cultural (or creative) industries policies. What lies behind such policies? How do they relate to other kinds of cultural policy, including those more oriented towards media, communications, arts and heritage? The first section asks how the cultural industries became such an important idea in cultural policy, when those industries had been largely invisible in traditional (arts‐ and heritage‐based) policy for many decades. What changed and what drove the major changes? In the second section, we look at a number of problems and conceptual tensions arising from the new importance of the cultural industries in contemporary public policy, including problems concerning definition and scope, and the accurate mapping of the sector, but also tensions surrounding the insertion of commercial and industrial culture into cultural policy regimes characterised by legacies of romanticism and idealism. We also look at problems surrounding the academic division of labour in this area of study. We conclude by summarising some of the main contemporary challenges facing cultural policy and cultural policy studies with regard to the cultural industries. The piece also serves to introduce the contributions to a special issue of International Journal of Cultural Policy on the cultural industries and cultural policy.


The three economic values of cultural heritage: a case study in the Netherlands

Ruijgrok, E. C. M.
Journal of Cultural Heritage
7(3), pp. 206-213

This paper shows that the economic benefits of conserving the most threatened types of cultural heritage surpass the costs. Conservation is a sound investment. For a case study in the Netherlands three different benefits are calculated: a housing comfort value, a recreation value and a bequest value. The housing comfort value is determined through the Hedonic Pricing method (HPM). It is the first time that this monetarisation technique is used to express the value of cultural heritage in Euro's. The results show that historical characteristics of buildings and their surroundings account for almost 15% of property values. The recreation and bequest value are estimated by means of the more commonly used Contingent Valuation method (CVM).

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Investing in Heritage – A Guide to Successful Urban Regeneration

European Association of Historic Towns and Regions (EAHTR)

There has historically been a lack of evidence and good practice guidance to convince many cities and stakeholders of the benefits of heritage led regeneration and to show how this can be delivered and achieved.

The INHERIT project, led by the European Association of Historic Towns and Regions in partnership with the cities of Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Göteborg,Verona, Gdansk and Ubeda fills this gap.

‘Investing in Heritage – A guide to successful Urban Regeneration’ presents a powerful and convincing analysis of good practice with clear recommendations aimed at local and regional authorities across Europe, on how to successfully regenerate cities through investing in heritage.

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