Creativity and management control - the diversity of festival budgets

Knardal, Per Ståle,
Pettersen, Inger Johanne
International Journal of Managing Projects in Business

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the budget, when split into a network of projects, can act as a management tool to balance control with creativity.

Design/methodology/approach – A case study is used to discuss the budget in a large Norwegian festival. Simons’ (1995) concept of interactive use of budgets is applied for the analysis of empirical findings. Especially, the authors focus on the design and use of the budget and how it is aligned with the specific characteristics of festivals as economic organizations.

Findings – The findings support earlier research which focusses on the need to balance between control and dynamic changes to successfully manage festivals. This study gives a detailed knowledge on how managers use budgets to combine management control with creativity and dynamic adaptions.

Originality/value – This study contributes to a detailed understanding of how managers can use budgets as tools to stabilize between uncertainty, creativity and control.

Keywords Budgets, Balancing creativity and control, Functions of budgets, Interactive and diagnostic use

Paper type Case study

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Creativity and tourism: The State of the Art

Richards, G.
Annals of Tourism Research

The rapidly developing relationship between tourism and creativity, arguably heralds a ‘creative turn’ in tourism studies. Creativity has been employed to transform traditional cultural tourism, shifting from tangible heritage towards more intangible culture and greater involvement with the everyday life of the destination. The emergence of ‘creative tourism’ reflects the growing integration between tourism and different placemaking strategies, including promotion of the creative industries, creative cities and the ‘creative class’. Creative tourism is also arguably an escape route from the serial reproduction of mass cultural tourism, offering more flexible and authentic experiences which can be co-created between host and tourist. However the gathering critique also highlights the potential dangers of creative hype and commodification of everyday life.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Creativity cognitive style, conflict, and career success for creative entrepreneurs

Chen, M-H.,
Chang, Y-Y.,
Lo, Y-H.
Journal of Business Research

Creativity cognitive style refers to individual differences in perceiving, behaving, solving problems, taking decisions, and relating to others in the creative process, whereas conflict handling style depicts individuals' behavior in response to interpersonal conflicts. Leaders' conflict management has profound impacts on group outcomes, though little work has been done to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs' creativity cognitive style, conflict handling style, and career success in creative industry sectors. Structural equation modeling is used to examine the hypotheses on a sample of 251 creative entrepreneurs in Taiwan. Results indicate that creative entrepreneurs' cognitive style influences entrepreneurial success through affecting conflict handling style. Based on the theories of cognitive psychology and conflict management, this paper sheds light on the missing link between entrepreneurial cognition and conflict handling in the entrepreneurship domain.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Critical analysis of crowdfunding as an entrepreneurial tool in the particular case of Portugal critical analysis of crowdfunding as an entrepreneurial tool in the particular case of Portugal

Soveral, C. M.
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

This work will attempt to answer the following research questions: What variables / business attributes have a relevant influence in a Crowdfunding campaign in the specific case of Portugal? To what amount of capital is it currently viable for a company/start-up to use Crowdfunding in Portugal? What kind of projects are more likely to engage the Portuguese public and gain its input (both financial and of other types)? This research will provide extensive literature review on the Crowdfunding theme, its origins, evolution, and current state, will provide contextualization for the case of Portugal, and will analyze data from the largest Crowdfunding platform in Portugal in order to answer the research questions.


Crowd-funding: an infant industry growing fast

Kirby, A. E.,
Worner, S.

This document, written by IOSCO, presents an exploration of crowdfunded markets, paying special attention to its main characteristics, benefits and risks. It also explains the regulatory regimes for peer-to-peer lending and equity crowdfunding. Finally, it uses all compiled information to recommend future public measures.


Crowdfunding : Insights Into The Motives That Influence Entrepreneurs When Launching A Successful Campaign

Sassoon, D.,
Duggal, S.
Lund University

The purpose of this study is to explore the motives that influence entrepreneurs when using crowdfunding and how these motives are related to each other. This will then provide a deeper understanding of how entrepreneurs can develop a successful crowdfunding campaign. The study adopted a qualitative research approach, investigating three Swedish technology companies who had prior crowdfunding success on the Kickstarter crowdfunding platform.


Crowdfunding among IT Entrepreneurs in Sweden: A Qualitative Study of the Funding Ecosystem and IT Entrepreneurs’ Adoption of Crowdfunding

Ingram, C.,
Teigland, R.

This report is the result of a study around how entrepreneurs, and in particular IT entrepreneurs, have responded to the increased availability of crowdfunding in Sweden. Much of the focus in international and regional studies has been on making crowdfunding attractive for potential funders, assuming that it is inherently attractive to would-be entrepreneurs. This report tests this assumption by interviewing entrepreneurs within the IT field in Sweden, as well as other actors within the Swedish start-up funding ecosystem.

Working Paper

Crowdfunding and civic society in Europe: a profitable partnership?

Hollow, M.
Open Citizenship

This paper looks at how online crowdfunding platforms CFPs and other peer-to-peer lending sites are beginning to alter the way in which charities and non-governmental organizations finance their activities. In addition, it also discusses how these sorts of investment platforms have the capacity to affect the way in which individual actors engage with one another at both the local and transnational level. Overall, then, what this paper shows is that, aside from their evident financial and economic benefits, CFPs also have the capacity to help foster and strengthen non-parliamentary democratic structures and practices.

United Kingdom
Journal paper

Crowdfunding And Social Networks In The Music Industry: Implications for Entrepreneurship

Martínez-Cañas, R.,
Ruiz-Palomino, P.,
del Pozo-Rubio, R.
International Business & Economics Research Journal - Special Edition 2012

In this paper the origins, concept, and models of crowdfunding are studied to finally show an example for the music industry analyzing the concrete case of Verkami (a well-known Spanish platform).

Journal paper

Crowdfunding and the Democratization of Access to Capital: A Geographical Analysis

Kim, K.,
Hann, I. H.
Robert H. Smith School Research Paper

In this paper, it has been examined how geography affects the formation of crowdfunded projects. It has been collected data on housing prices and local credit markets that are known to determine the cost of accessing traditional sources of credit and matched these data to a novel data set from a leading crowdfunding market. It has been found that small cities appear to get a disproportionate benefit from crowdfunding. Findings also show that difficult access to credit from local banks induces entrepreneurs to rely more on crowdfunding. Moreover, tighter credit constraints due to a drop in housing prices have a stronger effect on entrepreneurs who initiate large projects and live in high income areas. The impact of a local credit market structure is almost entirely via ‘location-independent’ projects that attract less funding from local people. Overall, it has been provided evidence that web-enabled crowdfunding has the potential to democratize access to capital in that it can be a viable option for entrepreneurs having difficulty accessing traditional offline channels of credit.

Journal paper

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