The aim of the present study was to investigate how three specific music festivals, situated in the Barents region, contributed to development of local identity in their respective host municipalities. The aim was further explored through three research questions focussing on 1) how the festivals cooperated with local agents; 2) how the festivals participated in and contributed to processes of glocalisation; and 3) what kinds of stories that were told through the festivals about their respective host municipalities. The festivals investigated was the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord-Norge (Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Finland). The study was grounded in modernity theory as well as previous research on festivals’ contribution to development of local identity. Concerning the methodological aspects of the study, it was designed using an embedded multiple case-design, in which each of the festivals constituted one case and the three research questions functioned as the cases’ units of analysis. Hence, within-case as well as cross-case analysis was enabled. The empirical data consisted of field notes from participant observation of in all 58 festival events; interviews with the festivals’ directors and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation in the form of festival programmes. The findings showed that all three festivals had extensive cooperation with a wide selection of local agents or stakeholders but also that the range and profoundness of this coopera tion seemed to depend on the festival management’s awareness of and focus towards the necessity of building and maintaining stakeholder relationships. This awareness seemed further to depend on the festival’s perceived self-identity, its degree of professionalism and institutional status. Regarding the participation in and contribution to processes of glocalisation, 17 aspects were found that were divided into the categories of reaching out; letting in; facilitating for meetings; and musical glocalisation. The festivals were seen to be narrators of history as well as telling meta-narratives about their host municipalities and thereby producing and reproducing collective self-images. The latter was exemplified in the Festspel i Pite Älvdal emphasising the local municipality as a centre in its own reality; the Festspillene i Nord-Norge strengthening the urban and displaying strong, international bonds; and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali emphasising connections towards other peripheral and rural communities.
Beliefs in culture as an instrument for regional development: The case of Stavanger, European Capital of Culture 2008
The Norwegian production of petroleum has peaked and in a not too distant future, the Norwegian ‘oil capital’ Stavanger has to meet the challenge of a declining petroleum industry. The bid for the status as European Capital of Culture in 2008 was one of the initiatives taken by local authorities in order to make the Stavanger region more attractive for new businesses and highly skilled employees. The bid reflected a belief in culture is as an important instrument for regional development. This article throw light on the question of how widespread the belief in culture was among the citizens as well as leading politicians, civil servants and business managers in the Stavanger region prior to the year as European Capital of Culture.
Hva er det som får folk til å delta i frivillig arbeid, hva motiveres frivillige av – og hvorfor slutter de? I denne rapporten presenteres omfattende analyser av betingelser for frivillig innsats, basert på datamateriale samlet inn i perioden 1998-2015.
Resultatene viser for det første at det ikke finnes én universell forklaringsmodell på hvorfor folk driver med frivillig arbeid, men at ulike forklaringer snarere må anses som komplementære. Interesse, indre motivasjon, kostnad-/nyttevurderinger og primærsosialisering er blant faktorene som bidrar til å forklare hvorfor noen blir frivillige og andre ikke.
For det andre understreker resultatene betydningen av å studere frivillig arbeid som en dynamisk prosess. Sosiale nettverk er særlig viktig i rekrutteringsfasen. Motivasjonen for å begynne med frivillig arbeid er ikke nødvendigvis den samme som motivasjonen for å fortsette. Og når man slutter kan det skyldes helt andre grunner enn endret motivasjon – ofte er det livssituasjonen som avgjør.
For det tredje støtter resultatene opp om tidligere forskning som har antydet mer strukturelle endringer i frivilligheten i Norge. Individuelle motivasjonsforklaringer har generelt blitt viktigere over tid, samtidig som båndet mellom frivillige og enkeltorganisasjoner har blitt svakere. Denne tendensen peker i retning av en individualisering av frivilligheten, der betydningen av kollektiv tilhørighet svekkes.
Forleggerforeningens servicekontor utarbeider årlig bransjestatistikk over bokomsetningen i Norge. Tallene bygger på opplysninger innhentet fra medlemsforlag, bokklubber og andre aktører i bokmarkedet. Omsetningen til aktører som ikke er medlemmer av foreningen, bygger dels på innrapporterte tall og dels på skjønn. Det er benyttet tilnærmet samme metode hvert år for å anslå totalmarkedet vurdert til utsalgspriser, men det er grunn til å understreke at denne delen av tallgrunnlaget er grove anslag.
Statistikken presenteres i to deler. Første del omhandler estimater for totalmarkedets utvikling, mens den andre delen bare omfatter forlag som er medlemmer av Den norske Forleggerforening.
Over the past fifteen years the music industry has experienced a disruptive process of digital transformation that has reshaped most aspects of the industry; in 2015 the contours of a “new music economy” have begun to emerge. The structure and mechanics of these evolutionary processes vary considerably between continents, and this book examines these processes within Europe, America and Asia. The contributors offer a range of theoretical perspectives, as well as empirical findings from the social sciences and business, as well as the media industries. They offer a holistic understanding of the forces shaping the new music economy, and shed some light on the impact of these forces on the ways in which music is created, aggregated and distributed, and on the economic and social consequences for industry producers and consumers.
|This book is an invaluable reference book about festivals, full of vivid personal anecdotes, thoughtful insights and inspirational, daring visions. In it, the European Festivals Association (EFA) has given the chair to renowned directors where each of them recalls their own invaluable experiences and each of them share the view that whatever their differences, all arts festivals must be there for art's sake concerning the challenges of artistic festival management and programming. These men and women evoke their experiences and the challenge of creating arts festival that enrich artistic expression. This book expresses the commitment of EFA to the passing on of knowledge and the primacy of artistic intentions.|
Large scale cultural events often have idealistic aims of affecting participants and spectators in a positive manner, by widening public’s cultural understandings and horizons. The ‘Open Port’ motto chosen for the Stavanger region as European Capital of Culture in 2008 explicitly signalled such ambitions. This article takes the idea of a positive link between exposure to broad-ranging cultural events and tolerance for cultural diversity as a starting point. Nevertheless, there is seemingly little empirical support in the research literature for such a postulate. On this background we suggest a different line of arguments, based on the idea of relative deprivation. Rather than expecting positive change in the beliefs of those more exposed, this alternative hypothesis presumes that inhabitants away from the main centres of artistic and cultural activities, could react. They will often see themselves as left behind and kept out from the grand events, it is contended. In this way we hypothesise that local inhabitants living outside of the central areas will react negatively, by becoming less sympathetic. Special survey data from the region for the period 2007-2009 indicate empirical support for this alternative hypothesis, based on the idea of relative deprivation. At the same time there is little evidence of a possible link between higher exposure and increased tolerance. Multiple regression analysis with an index of cultural scepticism as the dependent variable shows basically no change in attitudes for those living close to main centres of Stavanger 2008 activities. At the same time there is a significant increase in cultural scepticism among local inhabitants living farther away from the central axis. Moreover, results from surveys at the national level confirm a picture of stability in cultural scepticism for Norwegians in general during the same period. This makes an explanation of the observed change for inhabitants living within the larger Stavanger region but outside the central axis, especially challenging. Although the empirical patterns are consistent with the idea of relative deprivation, these findings could not be regarded as a strong test of the hypothesis at this stage. Further research, in alternative settings and with supplementary measures is needed.
|Despite their ubiquity and cultural prominence, academic study of arts festivals has been neglected. This article examines how cyclical arts festivals transform places from being everyday settings into temporary environments that contribute to the production, processing and consumption of culture, concentrated in time and place. Moreover, festivals also provide examples of how culture is contested. Support for the arts is part of a process used by élites to establish social distance between themselves and others. Festivals have traditionally been innovative and have always been controlled. In the past, artistic directors wielded this control but recent attempts by commercial interests to control festivals reflect a wider situation in which marketing agencies and managers are transforming arts and culture into arts and culture industries. Today, promoting arts festivals is related to place promotion, and this encourages ‘safe’ art forms. This highlights latent tensions between festival as art and economics, between culture and cultural politics.|
The authors examine the relationship between investment behavior of individual investors on crowdfunding platforms and the fundraising outcomes in crowdfunded ventures. They focus on investment characteristics of a network of co-investors in a focal venture on its crowdfunding growth at three stages - early, middle, and late. Using data on crowdfunding of music artists’ ventures, they find that in addition to the factors identified in previous research, network characteristics such as the cliquishness of co-investors as well as the breadth of their co-investments in other artists play a significant role in determining the growth of investments in crowdfunded music ventures. Authors also show that this role is particularly important in the late phase, as compared to the early phase, of investment growth.
This study provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence regarding the impact of the online community on platform performance. It is theorized that online platforms, such as Kickstarter, consist not of a single community but rather a hierarchy of multiple, partially competing communities. The proposed framework allows to identify such communities’ changes and, consequently, to better identify pivotal members of online communities and predict their lifetime value as potential backers.
The document demonstrates the growth of the different community types and estimates their different impacts on crowdfunding performance over time. Interestingly, it is found that some communities, despite high participation rates, had negative impacts on crowdfunding campaign success. It is discussed managerial and practical implications of our theory and findings.
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