Using the Work Systems Risk Framework, authors analyze main risks in three equity crowdfunding platforms: Crowdfunder, AngelList and Seedrs. Their findings indicate that operational risk, project management risk, cognitive skill risk, IP risk, quality risk, legal risk and vendor relationship risk factors to be important to crowdfunding platforms. Findings from this study are relevant to platform owners and regulators in assessing the risks of crowdfunding platforms.
Access to the learnable: Music education and the development of strong learners within informal arenas
This paper analyses the substantially growing markets for crowdfunding, in which retail investors lend to borrowers without financial intermediaries. Critics suggest these markets allow sophisticated investors to take advantage of unsophisticated investors. The growth and viability of these markets critically depends on the underlying incentives. The document provides evidence of perverse incentives in crowdfunding that are not fully recognized by the market. In particular it looks at group leader bids in the presence of origination fees and finds that these bids are (wrongly) perceived as a signal of good loan quality, resulting in lower interest rates. Yet these loans actually have higher default rates. These adverse incentives are overcome only with sufficient skin in the game and when there are no origination fees. The results provide important implications for crowdfunding, its structure and regulation.
In this document it is conducted a follow-up survey of large design, technology, and video games projects that attempted to raise money using crowdfunding before mid-2012. It is found that reward-based crowdfunding appears to be able to lead to and support traditional entrepreneurship. A very high percentage (over 90%) of successful projects remained ongoing ventures 1-4 years after their campaign. It is found that 32% of all these reported yearly revenues of over $100,000 a year since the Kickstarter campaign, and added an average of 2.2 employees per successful project. The survey also suggested that crowdfunding provided many potential benefits beyond the crowdfunded money itself to successful creators; including helping provide access to customers, press, employees, and outside funders. Consistent with other research, many projects were delayed for a variety of reasons, and 37% went over budget. It is also analyzed the factors that lead to longer-term crowdfunding success.
This study analyses from the point of view of the international crisis problematic, limitations of the traditional credit facilities. Authors want to explain and explore crowdfunding as an alternative to people and entities which have not access to traditional financial methods.
This study investigates characteristics of crowdfunded projects and drivers of success. In line with the community view of crowdfunding, results indicate that much of the funds provided are either donations or are entitled to receive a final product created by the project, rather than equity or cash payments. Moreover, crowdfunding initiatives that are structured as non-profit organizations tend to be significantly more successful than other organizational forms, even after controlling for various project characteristics. This finding is in line with theoretical arguments developed by the contract failure literature (e.g., Glaeser and Shleifer, 2001) that postulates that not-for-profit organizations may find it easier to attract money for initiatives that are of interest for the general community due to their reduced focus on profits.
An empirical examination of the antecedents and consequences of investment patterns in crowd-funded markets
In this study, it is empirically examined social influence in a crowd-funded marketplace for online journalism projects. This data set allows examining both the antecedents and consequences of the contribution process. Noting that digital journalism is a form of public good, it is evaluated the applicability of two competing classes of economic models that explain private contribution toward public goods in the presence of social information: substitution models and reinforcement models. It is found evidence in support of a substitution model, which suggests a partial crowding-out effect, where contributors may experience a decrease in their marginal utility from making a contribution as it becomes less important to the recipient. Further, it is found that the duration of funding and the degree of exposure that a pitch receives over the course of the funding process, are positively associated with readership upon the story’s publication.
Recently in Korea, crowdfunding industry has been receiving a growing attention. Korean government tries to activate crowdfunding industry by increasing venture capital companies and hopes for economic activation as well. However, there are a lot of financial regulations and other related regulations which block their entry and hinder the growth of the market. The related law which could weaken the restrictions is still waiting for a vote. Since there are a lot of stakeholders in crowdfunding industry, it is hard to totally understand the complex and diverse crowdfunding ecosystem and find major factors. This study, which is an exploratory research based on interviews has derived promoting and inhibiting factors of the crowdfunding activation from the government, crowdfunding company, and investors' perspective, and has analyzed a sequence of cause and effect for each factor. For this, the casual loop diagram was developed to deduce key issues, and propose an alternative.
Bakgrunnen for denne rapporten er at Kultur– og idrettsavdelinga i Hordaland fylkeskommune ønskte meir kunnskap om festivalfeltet i Hordaland som grunnlag for å kunne vurdere og setje inn tiltak som kan medverke til å nå desse måla.
Analyzing Norway’s experience from adopting on-demand streaming: Exceptions or rules to a future economy?
While the music industry, artists and fans are discussing the streaming’s ability to advance music’s digitalization-process into more sustainable models, Norway has indeed adopted subscription based, on-demand streaming and hence, may work as case to better understand the impacts of such an adoption. This paper builds on the findings in two separate but related committees, each resulting in a Norwegian report: The report from the Government initiated Nordgård-committee from 2013 (the committee on Challenges concerning the digitalization of the music industry1) and the report from the Norwegian Musicians Union (Musikernes fellesorganisasjon), the MFO committee2 from September 2014.
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