A Creative Industry In Transition: The rise of digitally-driven independent music production

Hracs, B. J.
Growth and Change
Volume 43 (3): 442-461

This paper nuances our understanding of the ongoing transition within the North American music industry. It extends the existing analysis of the so-called “MP3 Crisis” by exploring the ways in which digital technologies have challenged the entrenched power of the major record labels. In particular, new insights are offered based on interviews with music industry executives who have been active in shaping the industry's response to illegal file sharing. The paper also uses interview data from musicians to investigate the implications of restructuring at the macroscale on creative talent at the microscale. As such, it documents the structures and spatial dynamics of digitally driven independent music production in Canada for the first time.


A crisis of definition: culture versus industry in Odda, Norway

Cruickshank, J.,
Ellingsen, W.,
Hidle, K.
Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography
Vol 95B(2): 147-161

This article addresses the influence of dominant and traditional ways of grasping the reality in social and economic processes of change. Our point of departure is how the perception of crisis in Odda, a small industrial community in Norway, influences the course of the process of change. The analysis focuses on a heated debate over the exploitation of a large site in the centre of Odda, left after the closure of the key factory. Rather than the economic and social consequences of the closure, the main challenge that arose from the crisis was related to the emergence of ambiguity in the local conceptual framework. Coming to terms with the situation stimulated various attempts to rearticulate the discourse of local development, with the result that industrial and culture-based perspectives on development came into conflict. The economic crisis became a crisis of definition. In Odda, the industrial discourse finally domesticated the competing cultural discourse, ending years of conflict and inaction. In its explicit focus on the importance of local struggles and the way discourse structures such processes this story about recent developments in Odda complements literature on post-industrial development.


A Critical Comparative Study of Visitor Motivations for Attending Music Festivals: A Case Study of Glastonbury and V Festival

Event Management. 13(3) 181-196
13(3) 181-196
A global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed rapidly since the early 1900s. This phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires sustained development and growth in the future. Music festivals are unique events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, while music-based events are an extremely popular form of entertainment, research exploring the motivations of music festival audiences is sparse, especially from a UK perspective. Crompton and McKay contend that event managers should strive to better understand the motives of festival attendance in order to design better products and services for them and because motives are a precursor of satisfaction and a factor in decision making, this in turn can lead to greater attendance. This study critically compares the visitor motivations for attending two UK-based music festivals to challenge and ultimately support existing ideas developed from similar research overseas. The article establishes some of the first research into this area within the UK and challenges common assumptions from those in industry. A range of secondary research was considered and a review of existing literature on the subject was undertaken. Although the sample size was relatively small, the results showed that socializing with friends and family was a primary motive. Most importantly, the article supported the notion that multiple motivations come into play and it suggests that it is risky for festival managers to rely solely on the theme of the event itself. It is equally important to create a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences. Several recommendations were made for existing and future managers including focusing on realigning marketing and service strategies. Recommendations were also made for future research in terms of adopting new methodological approaches including the use of multiple means of analysis. The article finally challenges the nature of the underpinning theory and questions the reason that so much of what is understood is still based in the field of sociology in tourism, with very little underpinning theory dedicated to the events industry, despite its emergence as an academic field over a decade ago.

A Dynamic Mapping of the UK's Creative Industries

Bakshi, H.,
Freeman, A.,
Higgs, P.

This paper argues that, despite its strengths, the UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) classification of the creative industries contains inconsistencies which need to be addressed to make it fully fit for purpose. It presents an improved methodology which retains the strengths of the DCMS’s approach while addressing its deficiencies. We focus on creative intensity: the proportion of total employment within an industry that is engaged in creative occupations.


A Framework for European Crowdfunding

Buysere, de K.,
Gajda, O.,
Kleverlaan, R.,
Marom, D.

This paper is structured to give a concise overview of the state of crowdfunding in Europe, with the aim of establishing policy and a distinct framework for the European crowdfunding industry.

To maintain the integrity and proper ethics of crowdfunding in Europe, authors believe it is essential to create a framework of best practices and suggest a three pillar approach: regulation, education and research. In this paper, it is outlined a number of potential policies and regulations which authors believe offer a good star- ting point for a broader discussion.


A Kickstarter’s Guide to Kickstarter

De Witt, N.
Ebook Edition

This book gives a thorough understanding of the Kickstarter site, its functionality, practical usage, audience, and strategy. It provides a thoughtful analysis of the site and what the average person can expect when using the site. In addition, it can be applied to any reward platform, as all are similar.

Book single

A Link to New Product Preannouncement: Success Factors in Crowdfunding

Joenssen, D. W.,
Michaelis, A.,
Müllerleile, T.

This paper contributes by reducing the gap in crowdfunding research by drawing on insights from new product preannouncement literature. To this end, a common definition of crowdfunding is derived and used to characterize commonalities with new product preannouncement. This theoretical discussion is complemented by empirically testing the derived hypotheses about common success factors. Conclusions are drawn from the logistic-regression, using the technology category of a project dataset with 45,400 observations. Research shows that while timing and communication are key success factors, common to both new product preannouncement and crowdfunding, other success factors may already be standard and cannot separate the successful crowdfunding projects from the unsuccessful.

Working Paper

A longitudinal study of community venture emergence through legitimacy building.

Vestrum, I.,
Rasmussen, E.
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing

A rewarding experience? Exploring how crowdfunding is affecting music industry business models

Gamble, Jordan Robert,
Brennan, Michael,
McAdam, Rodney
Journal of Business Research
Volume 70, pages 25-36

This paper provides an exploratory study of how rewards-based crowdfunding affects business model development for music industry artists, labels and live sector companies. The empirical methodology incorporated a qualitative, semi-structured, three-stage interview design with fifty seven senior executives from industry crowdfunding platforms and three stakeholder groups. The results and analysis cover new research ground and provide conceptual models to develop theoretical foundations for further research in this field. The findings indicate that the financial model benefits of crowdfunding for independent artists are dependent on fan base demographic variables relating to age group and genre due to sustained apprehension from younger audiences. Furthermore, major labels are now considering a more user-centric financial model as an innovation strategy, and the impact of crowdfunding on their marketing model may already be initiating its development in terms of creativity, strength and artist relations.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

A snapshot on crowdfunding

Hemer, J.
Working papers firms and region
No. R2/201

This article addresses crowdfunding, a relatively new form of informal financing of projects and ventures. It describes its principle characteristics and the range of players in this market. The different business models of crowdfunding intermediaries are explored and illustrated. A first attempt is made to classify the different forms of funding and business models of crowdfunding intermediaries. Based on the available empirical data the paper discusses the economic relevance of crowdfunding and its applicability to start-up financing and funding creative ventures and research projects.

Working Paper
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