This paper will focus on sport, outdoor life and physical activity at the Sami festival Riddu Riđđu. I will address how sport might have been implicated in the sovereignty claims of the indigenous peoples of the Norhern Cap, the Samis. The festival is organized every year in the village Manndalen in Northern Norway. I have studied outdoor life and sport activities offered to children and youngsters at the festival; Mánáidfestivála (3-13 years) and how these activities are introduced and experienced by volunteers, participants and parents. Through fieldwork during three years I contemplated how physical activities included in the festival create the indigenous people’s identities. I found a mixture between traditional and modern activities which have origins both locally, nationally and globally, influenced by different ethnicities and indigenous groups not only activities from Samis, Kvens or Norwegians. The physical activities can be classified in three groups; 1) Traditional games, 2) Work-educating activities, and 3) Sport activities. Festivals as phenomenon have qualities which might contribute in shaping of identities. Whether physical activities are shaping identity, community, cultural understanding and how the festival might build bridges between different ethnic groups locally, nationally and globally is studied in the light of Bourdieu’s theories about habitus and symbolic capital.
A comparison of results of three statistical methods to understand the determinants of festival participants' expenditures.
|The aim of the research reported upon in this study is to examine the impact of visitors’ socio-demographic and festival experience-related variables on expenditure levels and patterns of visits to festivals. Three statistical models including logit, OLS (ordinary least square) and Tobit models are employed to identify and examine the differences or similarities in results from three different approaches. A comparison of the three approaches using cross-section survey data generated differences in model fit. In addition, it was found that the set of independent variables which were significant in estimating festival visitors’ expenditures varied between the three models. As such the findings of this study suggest a singular statistical approach may be inferior to multiple ones in gaining a full understanding of the determinants of festival participants’ expenditure.|
A Critical Comparative Study of Visitor Motivations for Attending Music Festivals: A Case Study of Glastonbury and V Festival
|A global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed rapidly since the early 1900s. This phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires sustained development and growth in the future. Music festivals are unique events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, while music-based events are an extremely popular form of entertainment, research exploring the motivations of music festival audiences is sparse, especially from a UK perspective. Crompton and McKay contend that event managers should strive to better understand the motives of festival attendance in order to design better products and services for them and because motives are a precursor of satisfaction and a factor in decision making, this in turn can lead to greater attendance. This study critically compares the visitor motivations for attending two UK-based music festivals to challenge and ultimately support existing ideas developed from similar research overseas. The article establishes some of the first research into this area within the UK and challenges common assumptions from those in industry. A range of secondary research was considered and a review of existing literature on the subject was undertaken. Although the sample size was relatively small, the results showed that socializing with friends and family was a primary motive. Most importantly, the article supported the notion that multiple motivations come into play and it suggests that it is risky for festival managers to rely solely on the theme of the event itself. It is equally important to create a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences. Several recommendations were made for existing and future managers including focusing on realigning marketing and service strategies. Recommendations were also made for future research in terms of adopting new methodological approaches including the use of multiple means of analysis. The article finally challenges the nature of the underpinning theory and questions the reason that so much of what is understood is still based in the field of sociology in tourism, with very little underpinning theory dedicated to the events industry, despite its emergence as an academic field over a decade ago.|
Access to the learnable: Music education and the development of strong learners within informal arenas
Bakgrunnen for denne rapporten er at Kultur– og idrettsavdelinga i Hordaland fylkeskommune ønskte meir kunnskap om festivalfeltet i Hordaland som grunnlag for å kunne vurdere og setje inn tiltak som kan medverke til å nå desse måla.
|While tourism has a long history of use as a tool for regional development, events and festivals are a more recent policy option. In both cases the emphasis is often placed on the potential positive economic impacts. In both cases there has also been little research conducted into a wider range of outcomes or into the factors and processes that contribute to these outcomes. This article examines the potential role of festivals and events in regional development with a particular focus on effects other than economic. The study reported here used a conceptual framework developed to describe regional tourism development to explore 36 case studies describing festivals and events in a regional development context. The content analysis identified 13 themes as associated with the effectiveness of festivals and events in supporting regional development. These themes were further organized according to their connections to the three key constructs of building social capital, enhancing community capacity, and support for non-tourism-related products and services. These constructs are then used to build a preliminary conceptual framework to understand the role of festivals and events in regional development.|
|The goal of the bachelor’s thesis was to create an efficient and implementable marketing plan for the Animatricks Film Festival 2015. The Animatricks Film Festival is an annual animation-related festival held in Helsinki, Finland. The festival is organized by Palikka Ry, a non-profit organization. It was agreed upon to create a marketing plan for the next Animatricks Film Festival (2015) as there had been no previous one(s). The bachelor’s thesis concentrates on describing the concept of marketing and marketing plan in the chapter of theoretical basis. The chapter on implementation presents the practicalities of creating a marketing plan for the Animatricks Film Festival 2015. As a result, a marketing plan for the Animatricks Film Festival 2015 was created based on the needs and wants of Palikka Ry. The implementation of the marketing plan started in January 2015. As the thesis was finished before the festival was being held, no definite or concrete proof on the success rate of the marketing plan was discovered. The marketing plan is attached to the bachelor’s thesis however, it is confidential and not published. The marketing plan was intended to be used for the following the Animatricks Film Festivals as a foundation to build on more ideas.|
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