Festival/arrangør

Music festivals: Transformations in non-metropolitan places, and in creative work.

GIBSON, C
Faculty of Science - Papers. 65-8
This paper addresses the theme of this special issue of MIA in the context of music festivals. It discusses the continuing growth of music festivals as avenues for musical performance, and for regional economic development, and considers what festivals mean for musicians in terms of changing audience demographics and the conditions of work. Festivals are increasingly important for musicians in building audiences and incomes. They have proliferated particularly in rural, coastal and ex-urban parts of Australia, linked to day-tripper and short stay tourism and the wider socioeconomic transition of those places. Festivals both reflect and contribute to social and cultural changes, such as the diffusion of musical genres with specialist audiences, inward migration of particular demographic groups and shifting place identities. They also offer new opportunities for places seeking to develop tourism, and local music and performance-based industries. This paper explains these trends, and draws on results from a recent large research exercise that sought to document the extent and impact of festivals. Although they are not new, festivals continue to reconfigure musical touring networks, audiences and performance opportunities. Such reconfigurations have occurred with less public fanfare than developments surrounding digital technology and downloading cultures, but their influence on the working lives of musicians is no less profound.
2007
Australia
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Resource dependency, costs and revenues of a street festival.

ANDERSSON, T.,
GETZ, D.
Tourism Economics 13(1), 143-162
13(1), 143-162
The financial position of a tourism-oriented street festival in Sweden is examined within the context of resource dependency and stakeholder management theory, focused on testing two hypotheses derived from this theoretical base. Data from a five-year period revealed how costs associated with the strongest stakeholders (that is, with the greatest bargaining power) greatly increased relative to costs associated with weak stakeholders. The festival was also more able to increase its revenues from weak stakeholders than from those in strong bargaining positions. Conclusions are drawn on how this case confirms and elaborates upon theory, particularly by applying it to the festival sector. Management implications are also drawn on how festival organizations should manage relationships when they hold strong or weak positions relative to stakeholders.
2007
Sverige
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

The meaning of cultural festivals

CRESPI-VALLBONA, M.,
RICHARDS, G.
International Journal of Cultural Policy. 13(1) 103-122
Cultural events are increasingly becoming arenas of discourse enabling people to express their views on wider cultural, social and political issues. Often the debates polarize into those advocating change and those wishing to preserve traditional or local culture in the face of modernization and globalization. This article analyses the discourse on cultural festivals from the perspective of stakeholders involved in traditional and popular culture events in Catalunya. There is generally a high level of agreement about the aims of cultural events and the cultural content that is appropriate for them. In particular, the importance of cultural events in underpinning Catalan identity is seen as being important. However, stakeholders tend to differ more in the meanings attached to concepts such as identity, with policy makers exhibiting a greater emphasis on economic and political issues, whereas cultural producers are more concerned with social aspects of identity. However, the general consensus on the social role of cultural events between the different stakeholders may be one explanation for the relatively vibrant festival culture in Catalonia.
2007
Spania
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Festival world Summary Report

HUNYADI, Z.,
INKEI, P.,
ZSABÓ, J.
The Budapest Observatory
The increase in the numbers and importance of festivals is a world phenomenon. Those in cultural professions, the public audiences involved in cultural policy and funding decisions as well as the general public are all interested in the artistic, social and economic background of festivals. Apart from a need for orientation that arises from the variety and versatility of the field, the Board hoped for answers to certain specific questions as well. How is it possible to select between the different festivals? How can it be checked if the subsidy was appropriately or inappropriately awarded? The present text gives a summary account on the research that the Budapest Cultural Observatory carried out. In addition to a succinct review of the survey's findings, some conclusions and proposals also follow.
2006
Ungarn
Rapport
Festival/arrangør

Are short duration festival tourist attractions?

MCKERCHER, B.,
MEI, W.,
TSE, T.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 14(1) 55-66
14(1) 55-66
This paper examines the value of short duration cultural festivals as tourist attractions, with special emphasis on their role in attracting and retaining international tourists. The study examined visitors to three festivals held in Hong Kong during spring 2004. Relatively few tourists attended these events. Moreover, most were unaware of the festivals prior to arrival and about 80% made the decision to participate only when in the destination. Tourism attraction systems’ theory reinforces the importance of awareness building prior to departure and suggests that in-destination awareness creation is ineffective in generating demand for these types of events, especially among short stay tourists. However, the costs associated with creating awareness in generating regions may not produce sufficiently valuable results, given the small window of opportunity for participation and the specialist nature of the market.
2006
Hong Kong
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Festivals, Tourism And Social Change, Remaking Worlds

PICARD, D. ,
Robinson, M. (eds)
Channel view publication
This book explores the links between tourism and festivals and the various ways in which each mobilizes the other to make social realities meaningful. Drawing upon a series of international cases, festivals are examined as ways of responding to various forms of crisis - social, political, economic - and as a way of re-making and re-animating spaces and social life. Importantly, this book locates festivals in the constantly changing, socio-economic and political contexts that they always operate in and respond to - contexts that are both historical and modern at the same time. Tourism is bound closely together with such contexts; feeding and challenging festivals with audiences that are increasingly transient and transnational. Tourism interrogates notions of ritual and tradition, shapes new spaces and creates, and renews, relationships between participants and observers. No longer can we dismiss tourists simply as value neutral and crass consumers of spectacle, nor tourism as some inevitable commercial force. Tourism is increasingly complicit in the festival processes of re-invention, and in forming new patterns of social existence.
2006
Frankrike
bok
Festival/arrangør

The Economic Value of Arts & Culture Festivals / A Comparison of four European Economic Impact Studies

VRETTOS, A.
The dissertation's main focus is to present the descriptive facts of the Economic Impact Analysis, to research similarities and differences of the methodologies used and the concepts applied for the economic impact analysis of four well-known festivals in Europe (Valladolid International Film Festival, Brighton Festival upon Brighton and Hove, Cultural Festivals in the East Midlands of England and Edinburgh's Year Round Festivals), in order to establish a base of a new argumentation about the arts and culture festivals, their impacts, evolution and support.
2006
Nederland
Avhandling
Festival/arrangør

The world's largest arts festival, the edinburgh festival fringe: mechanics, myth and management.

POLLOCK, X.
Ohio State University
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world’s largest arts festival. Its success has inspired imitation and so fringe theatre festivals have proliferated around the world. This dissertation is not a history of the Fringe, but an examination of those structures of the Edinburgh Fringe which have allowed it to continue to grow and succeed. To understand how the Edinburgh Fringe works one must understand that no performer is invited, those performers who come to Edinburgh are not given any financial assistance by the Fringe and the productions are housed in temporary performance spaces. There is no central governing body at the Edinburgh Fringe. The Fringe Society coordinates rather than coerces by providing needed services to performers and venue managers. The importance of these basic structures is often neglected. Both in Edinburgh and beyond three myths exercise as much influence as an understanding of these structures. The term “myth” is used to describe three ideas which are not factually correct, but which serve a useful purpose in promoting fringe theatre in both Edinburgh and beyond. The most important of these myths holds that the Edinburgh Fringe is dominated by new and edgy work. This last myth is so foundational it has come to be incorporated in the very definition of fringe theatre. Each of these myths has had an impact on non Edinburgh Regional Fringes, few of which closely imitate the structure of the Edinburgh Fringe. The most misunderstood and arguably the most important of the structures which have ensured the Edinburgh Fringe’s continued successes are the entrepreneurial venues administered by independent venue managers. This dissertation scrutinizes the antipathy some at Edinburgh have for the entrepreneurial venues. It then investigates in some detail the risks and labors undertaken by managers of venues large and small to demonstrate how these venues operate and why the managers take on such a demanding task.
2006
USA
Avhandling
Festival/arrangør

Thundering Hooves. Maintaining the Global Competitive Edge of Edinburgh's Festivals

AEA Consulting
This study, commissioned by the Scottish Arts Council in partnership with Festivals Edinburgh, the City of Edinburgh Council, the Scottish Executive, Event Scotland and Scottish Enterprise Edinburgh and Lothian, attempts to examine the competitive position of the eleven festivals belonging to Festivals Edinburgh and the extent to which that position is likely to be affected by the burgeoning number of festivals, both in the UK and overseas, that are competing for artists, audiences and funding; the increasing use of cultural programming (festivals and events) as strategic devices to promote tourism and to build the brand-identity of the cities or regions where they are located; and any other factors. The report is informed by extensive desk research and interviews with stakeholders; a comparison of Edinburgh’s festivals with a number of international competitors; and an analysis of longer term environmental, economic and social trends. This work, which included scenario planning workshops, took place during the second half of 2005. Following a fuller account of the methodology of the study and a summary of recommendations, below, Section One of the report looks at the overall attributes of leading festival cities and the challenges that established festival cities such as Edinburgh face. In Section Two, Edinburgh’s own position is analyzed and a recommended course of action discussed.
2006
Storbritannia
Rapport
Festival/arrangør

Arts Festivals and the City.

QUINN B.
Urban Studies. 42(5-6) 927-943
42(5-6) 927-943
There has been a remarkable rise in the number of urban arts festivals in recent decades. The outcomes of cities' engagement with arts festivals, however, remain little understood, particularly in social and cultural terms. This article reviews existing literature on urban festivals and argues that city authorities tend to disregard the social value of festivals and to construe them simply as vehicles of economic generation or as 'quick fix' solutions to city image problems. While such an approach renders certain benefits, it is ultimately quite limiting. If arts festivals are to achieve their undoubted potential in animating communities, celebrating diversity and improving quality of life, then they must be conceived of in a more holistic way by urban managers. Currently, the tasks of conceptualizing the problems at issue and devising appropriate policies are hampered by the scarcity of empirical research conducted in the area.
2005
Irland
Artikkel
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