Musikk, identitet og modernitet. Musikkfestivalen som arena for iscenesettelse av det senmoderne selvet
Globale artister i lokale festivaler. Glokale rom for musikalsk læring og utvikling av musikalsk identitet
Musikkfestivaler utgjør en stor del av kulturoffentligheten og har i liten grad blitt utforsket som arena for læring og identitetsutvikling. I dette paperet vil jeg i et musikkpedagogisk sosiologisk perspektiv diskutere hvordan muligheten for å bringe inn globale artister i lokale festivaler skaper glokale, sosialt og musikalsk differensierte rom. Videre vil jeg undersøke hvilken betydning disse rommene kan ha for publikums musikalske læring forstått i et situert perspektiv og for utvikling av musikalsk identitet. Et empirisk materiale hentet fr apilotstudien til forskningsprosjektet ”Festspel i Pite Älvdal – en studie i festivalens betydning for identitetsutvikling” vil bli sett i lys av Anthony Giddens’ teorier om det lokale og globales dialektikk, atskillelsen av tid og rom, frikobling og identitetsutvikling i det senmodernesamfunnet.
The research reported here explores statements given by music festival audiences about their strong emotional experiences of music. The respondents of the study were participants in a festival study who had chosen to write a statement about these experiences of music as part of their answers to a survey questionnaire. The data, which comprised 131 short descriptions, was analysed using qualitative content analysis. A total of 34 determinants on strong emotional experiences were identified. These were grouped into contextual and intrapersonal factors. A comparison with earlier research in the field showed that, although factors that seemed important for festival audience¿s strong emotional experiences with music were largely the same as for other participants of music listening or music making, contextual factors seemed to be especially important. Also, descriptions of the structural features of the music that evoked such experiences were not mentioned. Some possible reasons for these responses are explored in the article.
The aim of the present study was to explore the music festival Festspel i Pite Älvdal as a source of informal learning with implications for the identity of the audiences and the host communities. The main research question focussed on how the Festspel i Pite Älvdal affected the development of the audience’s musical identity and influenced their relation to their local community. The research sub-questions were concerned with how the festival 1) affected the audience’s construction of musical self-narratives; 2) contributed to the audience’s development and maintenance of parallel musical identities; and 3) contributed to the development of local identity in the festival’s host-municipalities. The study was grounded in earlier festival research as well as music educational research concerning informal arenas for learning. The study’s theoretical framework was built on theories of modernity, which made it possible to put into perspective identity development in contemporary societies. The sociology of music provided theoretical perspectives on the close connection between music and identity. Also, theories of situated learning were employed as a basis for the discussion of how learning might come through audiences’ peripheral participation in the festival community of practice. This research was designed as a case study, combining observations of festival events, surveys of members of the festival audience and interviews with survey participants and official representatives of the festival’s host-municipalities. Due to its theoretical points of departure, the study came to carry strong features of narrative research. The study’s findings showed that the festival affected construction of musical self-narratives by delivering contextual frames in which experiences, understood as material for construction
of such narratives, were developed. Despite the festival offering good preconditions for maintenance as well as development of parallel musical identities, the majority of the audience chose maintenance, and the festival worked as a device for identity development only for those few who preferred to use it that way. The festival contributed to development of local identity by telling the audiences the stories of who they were, by deepening, re-telling and prolonging pre-existing municipality narratives. In discussing the study’s findings, four identity dimensions of music festivals were brought to the fore: On the individual level, a music festival may function as an arena for lifestyle choices as well as a basis for individuals’ self-regulatory strategies in connection with music. On the municipal level, the festival may
be an outward manifestation of community identity and an occasion for reinforcement of social and cultural identity. The audiences’ festival-related learning can be expressed in terms of learning music, learning about music and learning via music. Viewed in relation to theories of musical knowledge, it became evident that the total learning outcome was similar to expected outcome from other informal as well as formal music educational settings.
The aim of the present study was to investigate how three specific music festivals, situated in the Barents region, contributed to development of local identity in their respective host municipalities. The aim was further explored through three research questions focussing on 1) how the festivals cooperated with local agents; 2) how the festivals participated in and contributed to processes of glocalisation; and 3) what kinds of stories that were told through the festivals about their respective host municipalities. The festivals investigated was the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord-Norge (Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Finland). The study was grounded in modernity theory as well as previous research on festivals’ contribution to development of local identity. Concerning the methodological aspects of the study, it was designed using an embedded multiple case-design, in which each of the festivals constituted one case and the three research questions functioned as the cases’ units of analysis. Hence, within-case as well as cross-case analysis was enabled. The empirical data consisted of field notes from participant observation of in all 58 festival events; interviews with the festivals’ directors and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation in the form of festival programmes. The findings showed that all three festivals had extensive cooperation with a wide selection of local agents or stakeholders but also that the range and profoundness of this coopera tion seemed to depend on the festival management’s awareness of and focus towards the necessity of building and maintaining stakeholder relationships. This awareness seemed further to depend on the festival’s perceived self-identity, its degree of professionalism and institutional status. Regarding the participation in and contribution to processes of glocalisation, 17 aspects were found that were divided into the categories of reaching out; letting in; facilitating for meetings; and musical glocalisation. The festivals were seen to be narrators of history as well as telling meta-narratives about their host municipalities and thereby producing and reproducing collective self-images. The latter was exemplified in the Festspel i Pite Älvdal emphasising the local municipality as a centre in its own reality; the Festspillene i Nord-Norge strengthening the urban and displaying strong, international bonds; and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali emphasising connections towards other peripheral and rural communities.
Why some go for the safe and others challenge the unknown: Music festival attendees’ strategies when choosing events
By means of material gathered through a case study, this article explores music festival audiences¿ choices of events. My central concern was whether audience members chose safe, in the sense of well-known and familiar concert content, or whether they challenged the unknown by using the festival for exploring unfamiliar musical styles and genres. The study was built on the theories of identity developed by Anthony Giddens and Stuart Hall, and the theories of situated learning presented by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger. Its aim was to investigate how a particular music festival could be seen as a source of informal learning through its impact on identity development. This article focuses on findings connected to a research question concerned with how the festival contributed to the audiences¿ development and maintenance of parallel musical identities. The research was designed as a case study, using empirical material in the form of field notes from observations of 21 festival events, completed questionnaires from 350 members of the festival audience, and transcriptions of in-depth interviews with a strategically chosen sample of 12 members of the festival audience. The findings showed that although the festival administrators, through varying the festival¿s programme and locations, had created conditions that were well-suited for development as well as maintenance of the audiences¿ parallel musical identities, the main tendency among the festival audience was to maintain pre-existing identities. In other words they went for safe options. Those few study participants who used the festival for exploratory purposes seemed to belong to higher social classes. In the article¿s concluding remarks, I look into what implications these findings have for festival audiences¿ access to music learning as well as what consequences they may have for formal music education.
Access to the learnable: Music education and the development of strong learners within informal arenas
This article explores one particular music festival, the Festspel i Pite Älvdal, as a source of musical learning. It is grounded in the empirical data of a case study that was gathered through observation, a survey, in-depth interviews, documentation and archival records. The theoretical framework was taken from modernity theory, and the study's epistemological basis was Lave and Wenger's theories of situated learning. The festival was seen as a community of practice, in which the attendees learned through peripheral participation. The findings showed that the audience learned music, about music and via music. When the outcome was compared with theories of musical knowledge, it became evident that it was similar to what people are expected to gain from other informal as well as formal music educational settings. The findings are discussed in relation to music education philosophy and research as well as perspectives found within ethnomusicology.
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