Generell

Markedet og de kulturelle verdier: Kultur- og medienæringene i et samfunnsøkonomisk perspektiv

Bakke, E.
Handelshøyskolen BI
10/2003

I samfunnsdebatten hevdes det ofte at aviser, bøker og kringkasting, på samme måte som scenekunst, opera, ballett, teater og konsertvirkomhet, har kulturelle verdier ut over den verdi disse varene og tjenesene blir verdsatt til i markedet. Man kan derfor ikke legge vanlige økonomiske lønnsomhetsbetraktninger til grunn når man skal vurdere disse næringers samfunnsmessige betydning. I denne utredningen tas denne påstand opp til kritisk drøfting. Utredningen tar sikte på å vise at eksistensen av kulturelle verdier eller andre eksternaliteter i medienæringene og i de næringer som produserer scenekunst, bør analyseres og korrigeres for på noenlunde samme måte som eksistensen av eksternaliteter blir trukket inn i samfunnsøkonomiske analyser av andre næringer. Man kan si at samfunnsøkonomi gjelder i realiteten akkurat dette, at summen av markedets utallige avgjørelser, avgjørelser som presumptivt er privatøkonomisk lønnsomme, ikke nødvendigvis adderer seg opp til noe som er samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomt eller optimalt. Spørsmålet er derfor heller hvorvidt de eksternaliteter vi vil stå overfor i medienæringene, de forhold som fører til at det er avvik mellom privatøkonomisk og samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet i disse næringene, er forskjellige fra de eksternaliteter som kan forekomme i andre næringer. Det faglige spørsmål blir hvordan myndighetene bør vurdere og eventuelt korrigere for de eksternaliteter som gjør seg gjeldende for kultur- og medievirksomheten. 

2003
Rapport
Generell

Gatewatching, Not Gatekeeping: Collaborative Online News

Bruns, A.
Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: quarterly journal of media research and resources
107, 31-44

This article introduces a new form of collaborative web-based editing which has become increasingly popular in recent years. It involves web users as reporters and co- roducers for specialist news sites by allowing them to submit their own news reports and pointers to relevant articles elsewhere on the web, and sometimes even hands over editorial control to the online community altogether. Websites of this type move on from traditional journalistic gatekeeping approaches, where editors publish only what they regard as 'fit to print', to what is here termed gatewatching, where almost all incoming material is publicised, but with varying degrees of emphasis. Gatewatching sites frequently become major repositories of specialist information, turning into resource centre sites for their interest community, and are particularly common on the fringes of the open source software development movement. Some of these sites can be seen to directly apply open source ideals (direct involvement of the community, open access to all aspects of the development process) to the reporting of news, in effect making news itself an open source

2003
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Visitor management for festivals and events.

YEOMAN, I. ,
Robertson, M.,
McMahon-Beattie, U.
Festivals and events management: an international arts and culture perspective. 65-79
2004
New Zealand
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Festivals and events management: an international arts and culture perspective

YEOMAN, I. ,
Robertson, M.,
Ali-Knight, J.,
Drummond, S., McMahon-Beattie, U. (eds)
Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
This title explores the central role of events management in the cultural, tourism and arts industries. It includes international case studies of arts and leisure events, together with case studies from Europe, New Zealand, Australia and the USA.
2004
New Zealand
bok
Festival/arrangør

Festivals and tourism: marketing, management and evaluation

ROBINSON, M.,
LONG P. (Eds.)
Sunderland : Business Education Publishers
This book provides critical perspectives on the marketing, management and evaluation of festivals and their complex and dynamic relationships with tourism and tourists. It examines issues relating to the planning and development of festivals, building, researching and reaching tourist audiences, the strategic and operational management of festivals and events, and their evaluation in terms of economic, social, cultural and regenerative impacts as part of the tourism sector.
2004
USA
bok
Festival/arrangør

Festivals, events and the destination

DERRETT, R.
Butterworth Architecture, Oxford
This chapter explores the relationship between festivals and events and a destination's prosperity, identity, tourism image and marketing strategies. It explains the roles festivals and events play as attractions and markers in the tourism system. It identifies qualities that make festivals special. It also explores the links between event management and host communities, government at all levels, media, community cultural development and specific special interest sectors.
2004
Storbritannia
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Festivals: Challenges of Growth, Distinction, Support Base and Internationalization

Hansen, K.,
Di Stefano, E.,
Klaic, D.,
Bollo, A., Bacchella, U.
The main goal of the project "Transforming a local festival into an international festival: How to produce a professional, image-building city festival" was to widen the vista of the festival organizers of Tartu, Estonia, and help them gain new experiences. The goal was to share experiences and visit new festivals abroad, the main emphasis was not on learning about the content and creative side, but about the organizational side of festivals. During the project year, six festivals in five different cities were visited. Seminars were held in each city, where the organizers introduced their experiences and where topics related to organization of festivals were discussed.
2004
Ungarn
Rapport
Festival/arrangør

Music festival tourism in Finland

TIKKANEN, I.
13th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research , Aalborg University, Denmark
With the rise of Finnish music culture both locally and internationally, the number of music festivals have grown all over the country making a relatively small impact to the country's tourism. This paper attempts to describe the music festivals in Finland from the tourism point of view, while revising the important marketing tools available to promote them. The paper concludes with a case of an international chamber music festival.
2004
Finland
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by organizers: an extension and validation.

GURSOY, D.,
KIM, K.,
UYSAL, M.
Tourism Management. 25(2) 171-181
25(2) 171-181
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the festival and special event organizers’ perceptions of the impacts of festivals and special events on local communities. An instrument with 17 items was proposed based on the literature and the suggestions of experts in the area. The proposed instrument was empirically tested using the data collected from professional festival and special event organizers by employing a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the organizers’ perceptions of the socio-economic impacts of festivals and special events have four dimensions: community cohesiveness; economic benefits; social incentives; and social costs. Results suggested that the proposed instrument had acceptable validity and reliability scores.
2004
USA
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction.

LEE, C.,
LEE, K. ,
WICKS, B.
Tourism Management. 25(1) 61-70
25(1) 61-70
Considering the importance of festival market segmentation as valuable marketing tool for promotion and understanding segment characteristics based on motivations, this study attempted to segment festival market using a cluster analysis based on delineated motivation factors. This study also explored any potential importance of motivation clusters and visitor types as factors of influencing their overall satisfaction based on main and interaction effects. A cluster analysis identified four clustered segments for six motivation factors in which the multi-purpose seekers were found to be the most important segment. Domestic segmented clusters were found to be influenced by TV and radio, whereas foreign-segmented clusters were influenced by friends and travel agency, indicating differentiation of promotional strategies. Two-way ANOVA indicates that visitor satisfaction was influenced by motivation and type of visitors, respectively. However, visitor types did not appear to act as an interaction variable for the effect of motivation on overall satisfaction.
2004
Sør-Korea
Artikkel
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