|This unique text offers a comprehensive study of the special events field, which is burgeoning over into many management sub–fields. Widely varied types of events are spawning a demand for new and innovative thinking and definitive management styles, and|
|Despite their ubiquity and cultural prominence, academic study of arts festivals has been neglected. This article examines how cyclical arts festivals transform places from being everyday settings into temporary environments that contribute to the production, processing and consumption of culture, concentrated in time and place. Moreover, festivals also provide examples of how culture is contested. Support for the arts is part of a process used by élites to establish social distance between themselves and others. Festivals have traditionally been innovative and have always been controlled. In the past, artistic directors wielded this control but recent attempts by commercial interests to control festivals reflect a wider situation in which marketing agencies and managers are transforming arts and culture into arts and culture industries. Today, promoting arts festivals is related to place promotion, and this encourages ‘safe’ art forms. This highlights latent tensions between festival as art and economics, between culture and cultural politics.|
|In From the Margins addresses culture (which unlike education is difficult to harness to immediate economic returns) from a wider developmental point of view and offers the Council of Europe and its member states an opportunity to reflect on the importance they attach to culture from a new, integrated and comprehensive perspective. The report's central themes are two interlocking priorities: to bring the millions of dispossessed and disadvantaged Europeans in from the margins of society and cultural policy in from the margins of governance. A new alliance between culture and development should enable this change to occur.|
Festivaler og bygdedager som lokale stemmer. Eksempler på kvinners og menns lokale aktiviteter i et fiskekvoteregime
Producing Norwegian Culture for Domestic and Foreign Gazes: The Lillehammer Olympic Opening Ceremony
After hosting the 1994 Winter Olympics, the Norwegian national and local authorities expected a ‘big boom’ in tourism; the actual effects have been less than, and different from, the predictions, and 40% of the full-service hotels in Lillehammer have gone bankrupt. This paper compares ex ante theories and predictions with the ex post reality. Reference areas and time-series analysis are used to clarify the counterfactual and internal validity. International comparisons among Olympic hosts identify general patterns. The aim is to help planners of mega-events and other rare projects to improve their forecasting and decisions. Ex post studies can improve the quality of future ex ante impact assessment of unique projects, but it is important to clarify partial, interaction and cumulative effects. Also, much more careful market and cost-benefit studies are needed.
This study develops a conceptual model that explains the variation of interpersonal skills among volunteers. An overall perspective is the assumption that people can learn informally outside organizational borders. Both individual and situational characteristics are considered as important in explaining individuals behavior. The main learning mechanisms that are introduced in the model are: learning from practice, learning by modeling, and learning by information exchange.
The model developed was tested on volunteers at the Kongsberg Jazz Festival. The results from the analyses show that both individual and situational factors explain the variation of increased interpersonal skills. More precisely, motivation to learn, age, job challenge, and feedback from supervisors, are significantly related to the generation of increased interpersonal skills for the whole sample in the study. The study does not find any interaction effects. In the last section of the dissertation limitations and implications of the study are provided.
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