|The book is a history of the European Festivals Association and was originally written to mark the 40th anniversary of its foundation in 1952. Various aspects of the history of the Association are discussed through the book.|
|Many large-scale festivals and special events are held in public places, requiring formal authorization and contractual arrangements with government entities prior to operation. Event organizers may require other government services such as traffic control, emergency medical rescue, and refuse collection, with their financial costs either paid by the organizer or waived or discounted by the government provider. The purpose of this study was to assess the state and local tax revenues generated from expenditures attributed to a large-scale staged tourist attraction, the 1993 Kodak Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta, Inc. (KAIBF, Inc.). Local and state gross receipts sales tax rates were applied to direct expenditure totals to estimate the fiscal impact of the event. In this case, the City of Albuquerque directly received $2,221,720 in gross receipts and lodging tax revenues, and the State of New Mexico received $1,323,237 in gross receipts taxes and $900,041 in gasoline tax revenues. By describing the economic stimulus and local tax revenues generated by the special event, the organizer bargains from a position of strength and may possess considerable "leverage" in subsequent negotiations with local government in the costs for services.|
|The key to both the financial and community success of a festival or major event is the participation of sponsors. The annual Cherry Blossom Festival in Macon, Georgia, is an example successfully using an economic impact study to turn a small, local festival into a highly successful, international event. In 1990, organizers of the Festival commissioned an internationally known marketing research firm to conduct an economic impact study for that year's Festival. Five basic research steps were undertaken, including site visits, telephone interviews, and an on-site visitor expenditure survey of festival-goers. The study determined that the Cherry Blossom Festival had a $4.29 million impact on Macon and Bibb County in 1990. The study also showed that nearly 191,000 people attended at least one event in 1990. Macon's residents support the festival through volunteering and attendance. These results have had a spectacular impact on the direction and growth of the festival as it continues to expand its events, capabilities, and sponsors. A professional, unbiased economic impact study provides the documentation necessary for a festival to demonstrate return on investment to corporate sponsors and attract sanctioned events, in-kind donations, officials, media sponsors, and the community support that make it successful.|
|In a world of increasingly complex and distributed computer systems an effective Event Management Service (XEMS) is a key part of the necessary system management and administration infrastructure. The EMS must provide timely warning of impending problems, notify failing processes, identify problem areas in a system and possibly automatically fix them before service availability falls below acceptable levels. To achieve what is required, interoperability between systems in a distributed network is only one part of the solution; inter-comprehension of the key event data is also necessary. This Event Management Service (XEMS) specification satisfies all these requirements. It defines a programming interface which receives notifications in the form of events, and transports them reliably to applications. The Specification is in three parts: Part 1 describes the API including the model, architecture, data formats and interface definitions; Part 2 describes reference implementations for DCE and CORBA; Part 3 describes event structures for the basic event set.|
|This unique text offers a comprehensive study of the special events field, which is burgeoning over into many management sub–fields. Widely varied types of events are spawning a demand for new and innovative thinking and definitive management styles, and Goldblatt paints a clear perspective on how the industry has developed and keeps an ear to the ground as to the future picture. Real–life case studies ("war stories"), carefully interwoven into the text to strengthen and expand concepts, are followed by a concise author’s comment called "lesson learned." The progression of each chapter is guided by highlighted boxes, clearly illustrated figures, and color photographs (lending clarity and inspiration in a field where presentation is key). A summary section at the end of each chapter reemphasizes critical points and provides the reader with an invaluable "big picture" perspective. This enlightening text is organized into four broad sections, which address: 1) The stages intrinsic in every successful event, and the linkage between competencies that form each event’s core. At the heart of these issues is the assurance of a satisfied guest in each unique environment, existing hand–in–hand with the proper management of financial matters. Synchronicity of these factors is bolstered by team building and leadership skills. 2) Scheduling and organizational elements of events: how best to select and implement effective catering, technology, music, entertainment, etc. 3) Marketing tools, from the "invitation," to promotion, to sponsorship opportunities and implications. 4) Legal aspects and risk management, as methods of cost control and ensuring a safe celebratory environment. A professional code of ethics is also discussed in this section.|
Volunteer Perception of Learning and Satisfaction in a Mega-Event: The Case of the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer
Volunteers' performance is a central success factor for many mega-events. This article focuses on volunteers' learning and satisfaction during the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer. The 50 students in the sample report an overall satisfaction with their participation. Important variables that were discovered related to volunteers' satisfaction include personal network, participation in the celebratory atmosphere, job-related competence, welfare issues, and job characteristics. With regard to volunteers' learning, they experienced increased social skills, job-specific competence, and knowledge about society. The results from this exploratory study clearly show the need for further research on volunteer management at mega-events.
Festivalkvalitet: en sammenligning av de besøkendes og de frivilliges vurderinger av kvaliteten av Kongsberg Jazzfestival
Denne studien handler om hvordan de besøkende og de frivillige funksj onærene oppfatter kvaliteten på årets utgave av Kongsberg Jazzfestiva l. Først blir kvalitetsbegrepet i en festivalkonstekst kort diskutert , og deretter presenteres den empiriske undersøkelsen. Konklusjonen h er er for det første at begge disse gruppene oppfatter kvaliteten som mer enn tilfredsstillende. For det andre er det stort samsvar mellom hvordan de frivillige tror de besøkende oppfatter de ulike kvalitets aspektene ved KJ, og hvordan de besøkende faktisk gjør dette. Og for det tredje viser det seg at ulike kvalitetsaspekter påvirker helhetsi nntrykket av KJ, både for besøkende og frivillige.
|The escape-seeking dichotomy and the push-pull factors conceptual frameworks were used to identify motives which stimulated visitors to go to events at a festival. These two frameworks were used to guide development of an instrument to measure motives. The sample participated in events that were classified into one of five categories. The extent to which the perceived relevance of motives changed across different types of events was assessed. Six motive domains emerged: cultural exploration, novelty/regression, recover equilibrium, known group socialization, external interaction/socialization and gregariousness. These were broadly consistent with the guiding push factors framework and confirmed the utility of the escape-seeking dichotomy.|
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