The Rise and Fall of Festivals. Reflections on the Salzburg Festival

The paper takes a closer look at cultural festivals such as musical or operatic festivals. From an economic viewpoint the paper shows that such festivals offer great artistic and economic opportunities, but that at the same time these opportunities are also easy to destroy. Empirical evidence from the Salzburg Festival show that government support can have negative effects on the innovative and economically success of festivals by introducing distorting incentives and imposing all sorts of restrictions. The paper draws policy suggestions on how the state can support art festivals.
Working Paper

Risk and innovation balance in crowdfunding new products

Song, C.,
Luo, J.,
Hoelttae-Otto, K.,
Seering, W.
International Conference on Engineering Design 2015 (ICED 2015), At Bovisa campus, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy

This paper explores innovation versus risk for small companies using crowdfunding products as a proxy for analysis. A database with 127 consumer electronics, namely 3D printers and smart watches, are collected from Kickstarter and Indiegogo. The metric of Real-Win-Worth is adapted to provide a well-rounded assessment of the product’s innovation, risk and other related business and engineering aspects. Our result suggests a preliminary framework of innovation and risk balance for crowdfunding NPD success. A statistical model is developed to correlate the amount of crowdfunding raised with 64% predictability. These results may contribute to better understand and balance risk and innovation in crowdfunding and small company contexts.

USA and Singapore
Conference paper

The Kickstarter Handbook: Real-Life Success Stories of Artists, Inventors, and Entrepreneurs

Steinberg, D.

In The Kickstarter Handbook, business writer Don Steinberg interviews dozens of people who have raised at least $100,000 on Kickstarter. You'll learn all the strategies of an effective Kickstarter campaign. You'll learn the perils and pitfalls that have dashed many a dream. And you'll learn what to do in the event of a best-case scenario - when your product goes viral and suddenly the cash starts flowing in.

USA and Singapore
Book single

Project recommendation using heterogeneous traits in crowdfunding

Rakesh, V.,
Choo, J.,
Reddy, K.
International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media

In this paper, the authors intend to answer the question “what set of features determine a project’s success?”. They begin by studying the dynamics of Kickstarter, a popular reward-based crowdfunding platform, and the impact of social networks on this platform. Contrary to previous studies, their analysis is not restricted to project-based features alone; instead, they expand the features into four different categories: temporal traits, personal traits, geo-location traits, and network traits. Using a comprehensive dataset of 18K projects and 116K tweets, they provide several unique insights about these features and their effects on the success of Kickstarter projects. Based on these insights, they build a supervised learning framework to learn a model that can recommend a set of investors to Kickstarter projects.

USA and Korea
Conference paper

The barriers facing artists’ use of crowdfunding platforms: Personality, emotional labor, and going to the well one too many times

Davidson, R.,
Poor, N.
New Media & Society

Using a survey of crowdfunding project founders in the culture industries, the authors explored the relationship between certain social and psychological characteristics and attitudes toward crowdfunding. They examined how extraversion, surface acting, emotional labor, the social composition of project backers, and project success all relate to enjoyment and future intentions of using crowdfunding in the culture industries. Crowdfunding appears to advantage culture producers with particular personality structures while disadvantaging others. In sum, crowdfunding seems beneficial but might be useful only for particular types of artists and therefore should not supplant other traditional financing modes.

USA and Israel
Journal paper

Show me the money! An analysis of project updates during crowdfunding campaigns

Xu, A.,
Yang, X.,
Rao, H.,
Fu, W.
CHI ’14 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

To better understand the factors affecting campaign outcomes, this paper targets the content and usage patterns of project updates–communications intended to keep potential funders aware of a campaign’s progress. The authors analyzed the content and usage patterns of a large corpus of project updates on Kickstarter, one of the largest crowdfunding platforms. Using semantic analysis techniques, they derived a taxonomy of the types of project updates created during campaigns, and found discrepancies between the design intent of a project update and the various uses in practice (e.g. social promotion). The analysis also showed that specific uses of updates had stronger associations with campaign success than the project’s description. Design implications were formulated from the results to help designers better support various uses of updates in crowdfunding campaigns.

USA and China
Conference paper

Does culture affect local productivity and urban amenities?

Boualam, Brahim
Regional Science and Urban Economis

Does a better cultural milieu make a city more livable for residents and improve its business environment for firms? I compute a measure of cultural specialization for 346 U.S. metropolitan areas and ask if differences in cultural environment across cities capitalize into housing price and wage differentials. Simple correlations replicate standard results from the literature: cities that are more specialized in cultural occupations enjoy higher factor prices. Estimations using time-series data, controlling for city characteristics and correcting for endogeneity weaken the magnitude of this effect. Even though the arts and culture might be appealing to some people and firms, such determinants are not strong enough to affect factor prices at the city level.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Learning through music festivals

Karlsen, S.
International Journal of Community Music

This article explores one particular music festival, the Festspel i Pite Älvdal, as a source of musical learning. It is grounded in the empirical data of a case study that was gathered through observation, a survey, in-depth interviews, documentation and archival records. The theoretical framework was taken from modernity theory, and the study's epistemological basis was Lave and Wenger's theories of situated learning. The festival was seen as a community of practice, in which the attendees learned through peripheral participation. The findings showed that the audience learned music, about music and via music. When the outcome was compared with theories of musical knowledge, it became evident that it was similar to what people are expected to gain from other informal as well as formal music educational settings. The findings are discussed in relation to music education philosophy and research as well as perspectives found within ethnomusicology.


Evaluation of Events: Scandinavian experiences

Mossberg, L. L.
Cognizant Communication Corporation, New York

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