|Festivals provide easy and open access to cultural activities for most diverse audiences, attracting all kinds of people and thus promoting social inclusion. In the follow up book, the immense potential of festivals to move borders and remove barriers is shown. The book is an inspiring collection of articles, interviews and discussions; an insightful anthology of different festivals' itineraries, urban realities and cultural approaches to cities and their inhabitants; a compilation of the thoughts of seven festival directors about festivals' roles in our diverse societies. They shed light on festivals paving the way towards an intercultural society.|
|This book is an invaluable reference book about festivals, full of vivid personal anecdotes, thoughtful insights and inspirational, daring visions. In it, the European Festivals Association (EFA) has given the chair to renowned directors where each of them recalls their own invaluable experiences and each of them share the view that whatever their differences, all arts festivals must be there for art's sake concerning the challenges of artistic festival management and programming. These men and women evoke their experiences and the challenge of creating arts festival that enrich artistic expression. This book expresses the commitment of EFA to the passing on of knowledge and the primacy of artistic intentions.|
|Cultural Networking is an all time phenomenon, but in the last years the popularity of networking in the cultural sector has steadily increased. Networking is considered a modern way of working and of collaborating. Still it seems that cultural organizations struggle with the challenges which networks offer. The book is a critical reflection on the efficiency and challenges of networking in the cultural sector today. It reports back on the conference 'Cultural Networks at Work' organised by the European Festivals Association (EFA) and the International Society for the Performing Arts in Brussels in June 2007. It presents contributions of ten experts and experienced networkers in the cultural field as well as discussion excerpts concerning a broad range of issues raised during the conference on cultural networking. Next to highlighting the outcomes of the conference, EFA BOOKS 2 contributes to and stimulates further debates on cultural networking.|
|The significance of culture in the process of European integration, its innovative nature and its contribution to the re-invention of the "Soul for Europe" have been proven so many times that neither local, national or European politicians can ignore its relevance anymore. This book is about the achievements of and challenges facing culture from a European perspective. It is published on the occasion of the centenary of the birth of Denis de Rougemont, founder of European Festivals Association (EFA) and its first year-long president. It pays tribute to the intellectual and political heritage of this philosopher and ardent European federalist. The anthology features contributions from five valuable authors who write in light of de Rougemont's thinking on the notion of culture from historical, philosophical, political, cultural and sometimes very personal perspectives, drawing the line from immediate post-war integration to the meaning of culture today and its challenges in the future. Above all, this book re-confirms the key role and the immeasurable relevance of the arts, artistic expression, cultural networks such as the EFA and civil society engagement in the building of an open European civil society.|
This article compares two forms of crowdfunding: entrepreneurs solicit individuals either to pre-order the product or to advance a fixed amount of money in exchange for a share of future profits (or equity). In either case, it is assumed that “crowdfunders" enjoy “community benefits" that increase their utility. Using a unified model, it is showed that the entrepreneur prefers pre-ordering if the initial capital requirement is relatively small compared with market size and prefers profit sharing otherwise. These conclusions have implications for managerial decisions in the early development stage of firms, when the entrepreneur needs to build a community of individuals with whom he or she must interact. This study also offer extensions on the impact of quality uncertainty and information asymmetry.
This paper is structured to give a concise overview of the state of crowdfunding in Europe, with the aim of establishing policy and a distinct framework for the European crowdfunding industry.
To maintain the integrity and proper ethics of crowdfunding in Europe, authors believe it is essential to create a framework of best practices and suggest a three pillar approach: regulation, education and research. In this paper, it is outlined a number of potential policies and regulations which authors believe offer a good star- ting point for a broader discussion.
This document is a working document of the Commission services for consultation. The views presented in this document are not a final policy position nor do they constitute a formal proposal by the European Commission. However, it is a useful review of definitions and challenges and opportunities of crowdfunding.
This study investigates characteristics of crowdfunded projects and drivers of success. In line with the community view of crowdfunding, results indicate that much of the funds provided are either donations or are entitled to receive a final product created by the project, rather than equity or cash payments. Moreover, crowdfunding initiatives that are structured as non-profit organizations tend to be significantly more successful than other organizational forms, even after controlling for various project characteristics. This finding is in line with theoretical arguments developed by the contract failure literature (e.g., Glaeser and Shleifer, 2001) that postulates that not-for-profit organizations may find it easier to attract money for initiatives that are of interest for the general community due to their reduced focus on profits.
This study investigates characteristics of individual crowdfunding practices and drivers of fundraising success, where entrepreneurs can tailor their crowdfunding initiatives better than on standardized plat- forms. This data indicate that most of the funds provided are entitled to receive either financial compensations (equity, profit-share arrangement) or non-financial benefits (final product, token of appreciation), while donations are less common. Moreover, crowdfunding initiatives that are structured as non-profit organizations tend to be significantly more successful than other organizational forms in achieving their fundraising targets, even after controlling for various project characteristics.
In the present chapter, the authors map and characterize crowdsourcing and crowdfunding platforms that promote social entrepreneurship in the online universe. They first analyze relevant theoretical concepts and the existing literature. Then, they map and describe the platforms that tried to encourage this type of entrepreneurship around the world, especially in Brazil. Finally, they examine some important aspects of the panorama of crowdfunding in Brazil.
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