This report provides a synthesis of the practices of crowdfunding in Europe, including elements of definitions, typology, statistical data, analysis of the varying practices, etc. It also identifies the issues arising from the use of crowdfunding within the EU which are potentially of EU competences and/or involve regulatory frameworks, including the relevance of existing financial regulations regarding initial public offerings (IPO) and/or the existence of legal exemptions, and cross-border access to crowdfunding within the EU. Finally, it provides recommendations concerning the potential regulation of crowdfunding schemes at EU and national level, on the basis of the key issues identified.
Festival Voss er både ein konsulentorganisasjon og ein pådrivar for å samle og dele kunnskap i festivalmiljøet på Voss. Dei tek på seg fleire ulike arbeidsoppgåver for festivalar, dei rettleier nye festivalar og arrangement, dei set i gang samarbeidsprosjekt på tvers av festivalar, og dei er medarrangørar i fleire store idrettsarrangement. Festivalkompetanse er vel å merke eit omgrep som vanskeleg kan definerast, og for å forstå korleis ein kan vere konsulent i eit festivallandskap, er det difor vesentleg å spørje: Kva er festivalkompetanse? Korleis overføre kunnskap innan og mellom festivalar? Korleis bidreg ein konsulentorganisasjon som Festival Voss med ei slik kompetanseoverføring?
In this paper, the author analyzes data from Kickstarter seeking to figure out influential factors affecting fundraising outcomes including project success and funding level. He extends former research and takes new factors into consideration. Analysis results based on 32,177 projects and held between May 2009 and 2014 indicate that fundraising goal, duration, positively emotional words in description have negative effects on project outcomes. Urban income, title length, previous projects count launched by the same creator and competing projects count initiated in the same type are positively associated with the outcomes.
This paper nuances our understanding of the ongoing transition within the North American music industry. It extends the existing analysis of the so-called “MP3 Crisis” by exploring the ways in which digital technologies have challenged the entrenched power of the major record labels. In particular, new insights are offered based on interviews with music industry executives who have been active in shaping the industry's response to illegal file sharing. The paper also uses interview data from musicians to investigate the implications of restructuring at the macroscale on creative talent at the microscale. As such, it documents the structures and spatial dynamics of digitally driven independent music production in Canada for the first time.
|There is growing interest in how festivals can help to build strong and cohesive communities, particularly whether they can reach a broad swath of the population or operate as enclaves. This article explores ways in which festival organizers may contribute to social inclusion goals through a qualitative phenomenological study of music festivals. Findings suggest that these festival organizers may contribute to social inclusion across four areas of society—consumption, production, political engagement, and social interaction or communitas—through factors such as providing opportunities for local participation, learning new skills, and access to education about social justice. However, it appears that these festival organizers tended to direct their social inclusion efforts toward portable communities, focusing on attendees but failing to reach out to local residents. This limits their ability to embrace the local community in its broadest sense, and calls into question their likelihood of achieving inclusivity outcomes.|
|The paper seeks to examine the concepts, types and implications of festival innovation and failure. A review of extant literature is undertaken and examples of innovation and failure in three festivals are used to demonstrate the simultaneity and co-dependency of innovation and failure in the process of festival management. It is apparent that many forms of program, market, service, organizational and financial innovation are available to festival managers. Many involve risk of failure due to the resource dependency theory postulated in the literature, as well as more pragmatic reasons including bad weather and managerial incompetence. The main practical implication of the research is to develop the knowledge for festival managers responses to the dual challenges of embracing innovation and avoiding failure as it will determine the future of festivals. There is limited literature on festival management innovation and failure and limited information available to festival managers regarding the nature of festivals that facilitate innovation or failure. This paper makes an original contribution to these important issues in festival management.|
|This paper addresses the theme of this special issue of MIA in the context of music festivals. It discusses the continuing growth of music festivals as avenues for musical performance, and for regional economic development, and considers what festivals mean for musicians in terms of changing audience demographics and the conditions of work. Festivals are increasingly important for musicians in building audiences and incomes. They have proliferated particularly in rural, coastal and ex-urban parts of Australia, linked to day-tripper and short stay tourism and the wider socioeconomic transition of those places. Festivals both reflect and contribute to social and cultural changes, such as the diffusion of musical genres with specialist audiences, inward migration of particular demographic groups and shifting place identities. They also offer new opportunities for places seeking to develop tourism, and local music and performance-based industries. This paper explains these trends, and draws on results from a recent large research exercise that sought to document the extent and impact of festivals. Although they are not new, festivals continue to reconfigure musical touring networks, audiences and performance opportunities. Such reconfigurations have occurred with less public fanfare than developments surrounding digital technology and downloading cultures, but their influence on the working lives of musicians is no less profound.|
|The economic importance of festivals and events ins now widely recognized. Events have an impact on local, state and national economies through investment, employment and income. They also generate increased tourism and media coverage which leads to increased visitation and awareness of the host destination. This chapter will explain the relevant economic principles that apply to events and the economic and evaluation techniques that are used to determine the value of events. Mega events have major impacts on particular sectors within the economy, including trade, transport and tourism. These sectoral impacts, when combined, can influence the total value of economic activity in a given period as measured using the GDP or GSP. It is important to recognize that it is not just the initial expenditure in the sectors that increases economic activity, but also the subsequent flow-on, or multiplier effects that follow an initial injection of new money in the economy. The size of the multiplier effects will be determined by the extent to which the economy can retain the additional event-related expenditure in the local economy and prevent it from following out on imported goods or services.|
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