|The paradigms of analysis within the pages of this book have as their root a conference co-organised in 2007 by the School of Services Management, Bournemouth University and the Centre for Festival and Event Management, Napier University Business School. While the conference, ‘Event Tourism: Enhancing Destinations and the Visitor Economy' brought forward journal publications particular to the conference themes, the range of research concepts, research practice and practical example evidenced around this indicated a need for a more expansive research text. It is from this environment that the book has emerged.
The interrelated nature of festivals and events, the fact that they are cultural, business, economic and emotional occurrences makes thematic distinction a great challenge. We, the editors, have nevertheless divided the work into four core subject themes, each with an introduction by one of the editors:
Part one, Destination, Image and Development;
Part two, Community and Identity;
Part three, Audience and Participant Experience, and
Part four, Managing the Event.
Through reading these articles the thematic division of the book will become clear. Equally we anticipate many other areas of investigation, interpretation and inference will emerge for the reader from the particular focus given to the subject by the respective author. This is as it should be. While student numbers for the subject area of festivals and events are growing, publication routes are emerging and the event sector grows so too the call for research synthesis is more evident.
As a relatively new research area so too there is a call for ensuring that academic rigour is applied to the analysis of festivals and events and their affect. This is all the more the case when there is a proliferation of research interest in, and evaluative skills being applied to, the social and cultural effects of festivals and events. The other micro and macro economic and business management requirements of events have not disappeared in the meantime. Academic and professional legitimacy for the subject area can only be maintained if quality is evident through all areas of analysis. Thus, we believe International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis is a distillation of the potential to offer strong components in a multi-disciplined whole.
This paper provides an investigation into crowdfunding, identifying how it may be appropriately adopted within the start-up equity-financing context so as to contribute to the aggregated pool of capital available to new (pre-commercial) ventures. An agency theoretical perspective is adopted to investigate the necessary agency-cost control mechanisms unique to emerging crowdfunding models. Given the relational character of the investment process, the venture capitalist’s perceptions of agency dynamics in the investor- investee relationship provide an appropriate lens for analysing the likely acceptance of crowdfunding in start-up financing. Data are drawn using a qualitative methodology (convergent interviews) with Australian venture capitalists that provide early stage financing. Results suggest that agency dynamics in crowdfunding models in start-up financing comprise a combination of investor specific factors, and ex-ante and ex-post investment factors.
|There is growing interest in how festivals can help to build strong and cohesive communities, particularly whether they can reach a broad swath of the population or operate as enclaves. This article explores ways in which festival organizers may contribute to social inclusion goals through a qualitative phenomenological study of music festivals. Findings suggest that these festival organizers may contribute to social inclusion across four areas of society—consumption, production, political engagement, and social interaction or communitas—through factors such as providing opportunities for local participation, learning new skills, and access to education about social justice. However, it appears that these festival organizers tended to direct their social inclusion efforts toward portable communities, focusing on attendees but failing to reach out to local residents. This limits their ability to embrace the local community in its broadest sense, and calls into question their likelihood of achieving inclusivity outcomes.|
|The paper seeks to examine the concepts, types and implications of festival innovation and failure. A review of extant literature is undertaken and examples of innovation and failure in three festivals are used to demonstrate the simultaneity and co-dependency of innovation and failure in the process of festival management. It is apparent that many forms of program, market, service, organizational and financial innovation are available to festival managers. Many involve risk of failure due to the resource dependency theory postulated in the literature, as well as more pragmatic reasons including bad weather and managerial incompetence. The main practical implication of the research is to develop the knowledge for festival managers responses to the dual challenges of embracing innovation and avoiding failure as it will determine the future of festivals. There is limited literature on festival management innovation and failure and limited information available to festival managers regarding the nature of festivals that facilitate innovation or failure. This paper makes an original contribution to these important issues in festival management.|
|This paper addresses the theme of this special issue of MIA in the context of music festivals. It discusses the continuing growth of music festivals as avenues for musical performance, and for regional economic development, and considers what festivals mean for musicians in terms of changing audience demographics and the conditions of work. Festivals are increasingly important for musicians in building audiences and incomes. They have proliferated particularly in rural, coastal and ex-urban parts of Australia, linked to day-tripper and short stay tourism and the wider socioeconomic transition of those places. Festivals both reflect and contribute to social and cultural changes, such as the diffusion of musical genres with specialist audiences, inward migration of particular demographic groups and shifting place identities. They also offer new opportunities for places seeking to develop tourism, and local music and performance-based industries. This paper explains these trends, and draws on results from a recent large research exercise that sought to document the extent and impact of festivals. Although they are not new, festivals continue to reconfigure musical touring networks, audiences and performance opportunities. Such reconfigurations have occurred with less public fanfare than developments surrounding digital technology and downloading cultures, but their influence on the working lives of musicians is no less profound.|
|The economic importance of festivals and events ins now widely recognized. Events have an impact on local, state and national economies through investment, employment and income. They also generate increased tourism and media coverage which leads to increased visitation and awareness of the host destination. This chapter will explain the relevant economic principles that apply to events and the economic and evaluation techniques that are used to determine the value of events. Mega events have major impacts on particular sectors within the economy, including trade, transport and tourism. These sectoral impacts, when combined, can influence the total value of economic activity in a given period as measured using the GDP or GSP. It is important to recognize that it is not just the initial expenditure in the sectors that increases economic activity, but also the subsequent flow-on, or multiplier effects that follow an initial injection of new money in the economy. The size of the multiplier effects will be determined by the extent to which the economy can retain the additional event-related expenditure in the local economy and prevent it from following out on imported goods or services.|
|The study's focus is to quantify the overall economic impact upon the local area of Snowy Region (Australia) regarding several cultural events, as well as supplying basic understanding of the processes involved within the economical impact assessment. It differs from many other studies into the economic impacts of events in that the focus of attention is the small regional economy, with a focus on the sub-State regional economic impact, where both the events and the regional economy in which those are held are smaller than the usual cases found in most economical impact studies and with the added challenge of the lack of industrial interconnectivity (core to the input-output model).|
|The focus of the first conference, held in 2000, was on identifying and analyzing the existing research on events, and creating an event research agenda for the future. The conference attracted an excellent mix of event practitioners, government representatives and academics from Australia and overseas. At the end of the conference, there was a strongly supported motion to stage the conference every two years. The second conference is themed on Events and Place Making. And it examines the use of events to build communities and to brand destinations, as well as related themes of event management strategies, marketing, operations, human resources, volunteering and event research issues.|
|The EFFE Guide is the festival guidebook celebrating the label and award recipients. It contains both inspiring articles on festival life as well as essential details on each festival taking part in this platform. Inclusion in the EFFE Guide makes festivals' information easily accessible to audiences, colleagues in the arts, artists, performing arts companies, public authorities at all levels, sponsors and the media.|
|The book is a history of the European Festivals Association and was originally written to mark the 40th anniversary of its foundation in 1952. Various aspects of the history of the Association are discussed through the book.|
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