From cultural industries to creative industries and back? Towards clarifying theory and rethinking policy
In this paper, I draw attention to the complexities and confusions in the shift in discourse and praxis from “culture industry” to “cultural industries” and then “creative industries.” I examine how this “creative turn” is fraught with challenges, highlighting seven issues in particular: (i) the dif- ficulties in defining and scoping the creative industries; (ii) the challenges in measuring the economic benefits creative industries bring; (iii) the risk that creative industries neglect genuine creativity/ culture; (iv) the utopianization of “creative labour”; (v) the risk of valorizing and promoting external expertise over local small- and medium-scale enterprises in the building of “creative industries”; (vi) the danger of overblown expectations for creative industries to serve innovation and the economy, as well as culture and social equity; and (vii) the fallacy that “creative cities” can be designed. I suggest that the move towards creative industries discourse represents a theoretical backslide, and raise the possibility that a return to “cultural industries” would be more beneficial for clarifying our theoretical understanding of the cultural sectors and the creative work that they do, as well as enabling better policymaking.
I samfunnsdebatten hevdes det ofte at aviser, bøker og kringkasting, på samme måte som scenekunst, opera, ballett, teater og konsertvirkomhet, har kulturelle verdier ut over den verdi disse varene og tjenesene blir verdsatt til i markedet. Man kan derfor ikke legge vanlige økonomiske lønnsomhetsbetraktninger til grunn når man skal vurdere disse næringers samfunnsmessige betydning. I denne utredningen tas denne påstand opp til kritisk drøfting. Utredningen tar sikte på å vise at eksistensen av kulturelle verdier eller andre eksternaliteter i medienæringene og i de næringer som produserer scenekunst, bør analyseres og korrigeres for på noenlunde samme måte som eksistensen av eksternaliteter blir trukket inn i samfunnsøkonomiske analyser av andre næringer. Man kan si at samfunnsøkonomi gjelder i realiteten akkurat dette, at summen av markedets utallige avgjørelser, avgjørelser som presumptivt er privatøkonomisk lønnsomme, ikke nødvendigvis adderer seg opp til noe som er samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomt eller optimalt. Spørsmålet er derfor heller hvorvidt de eksternaliteter vi vil stå overfor i medienæringene, de forhold som fører til at det er avvik mellom privatøkonomisk og samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet i disse næringene, er forskjellige fra de eksternaliteter som kan forekomme i andre næringer. Det faglige spørsmål blir hvordan myndighetene bør vurdere og eventuelt korrigere for de eksternaliteter som gjør seg gjeldende for kultur- og medievirksomheten.
This report compares the size and growth of the EU’s creative industries on a consistent basis.
This chapter focuses on the relationships between universities and their urban surroundings, with a particular focus on the importance attributed to social networks. Our discussion involves a brief overview of the chang- ing relations between the university and the city-region, thus pointing out the complexity and dynamism inherent in those relations. This has taken on a particular relevance in recent years because universities are increasingly expected to play a more direct role in the further development of their geographic area. The overview provided is followed by a conceptualisation of such relations through the complex web of interactions between university and city agents. Our analysis highlights both the nature and scope of engagement between universities and cities, and builds upon the heterogeneity of the two. As open systems, the ties between cities and universities take place around ‘spaces of interaction’ with social networks (based on mutual trust or social capital) playing a critical role. From a policy perspective, the chapter argues that urban policies should take into account the importance of formal and informal networks in the context of the direct and indirect beneits accrued to university–city relations. More importantly, we argue that there are limitations in the extent that social arrangements can be steered from the ‘top down’, in light of predeined or desired outcomes aligned with prevalent policy agendas at the local and/ or national levels.
Small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the creation of growth and jobs. As a result, the provision of support to SMEs has become an increasingly important political priority over the years. The amount of aid from the Structural Funds earmarked for the support of SMEs during the two last programming periods amounted to 23 billion and 15 billion euro respectively. Business incubators aim to support the successful establishment and further development of start‐up enterprises.
The purpose of this report is to present the results of the analysis of international cultural trade data for the period 2004-2013. Furthermore, this report aims to shed light on the impact that the global financial and economic crisis of 2008 has had on the flows of cultural goods and services. Finally, it describes innovative models and statistics that have been developed to improve the accuracy of these data.
The concept of scene has long been used by musicians and music journalists to describe the clusters of musicians, promoters and fans, etc., who grow up around particular genres of music. Typically, this everyday usage of scene has referred to a particular local setting, usually a city or district, where a particular style of music has either originated, or has been appropriated and locally adapted. Examples here would include Chicago blues, New Orleans jazz and Nashville Country music, as well as numerous lesser known instances of local musical innovation and production.
Since the early 1990s, the concept of scene has also begun to acquire currency as an academic model of analysis. Scene’s significance in this respect has resulted partly from the criticism and rejection of prior theoretical frameworks used in research on music, and the local, notably subcultural theory (see, for example, Clarke, 1981; Bennett, 1999), and also due to the influential work on ‘‘art worlds’’ and cultural industries (Becker, 1982). Peterson and Bennett (2004) observe as an academic research model that the concept of scene can usefully be subdivided into three categories: local (Cohen, 1991; Shank, 1994), trans-local (Kruse, 1993; Hodkinson, 2002) and virtual (Kibby, 2000; Bennett, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to assess the different ways that scene has been conceptualised in academic research as a means of understanding music as a ‘resource’ in contemporary everyday life.
This article introduces a new form of collaborative web-based editing which has become increasingly popular in recent years. It involves web users as reporters and co- roducers for specialist news sites by allowing them to submit their own news reports and pointers to relevant articles elsewhere on the web, and sometimes even hands over editorial control to the online community altogether. Websites of this type move on from traditional journalistic gatekeeping approaches, where editors publish only what they regard as 'fit to print', to what is here termed gatewatching, where almost all incoming material is publicised, but with varying degrees of emphasis. Gatewatching sites frequently become major repositories of specialist information, turning into resource centre sites for their interest community, and are particularly common on the fringes of the open source software development movement. Some of these sites can be seen to directly apply open source ideals (direct involvement of the community, open access to all aspects of the development process) to the reporting of news, in effect making news itself an open source
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