As the game industry continues to grow and expand its target market to nearly every person with access to an Internet connection, the capabilities needed to gain a competitive advantage are changing too. This paper seeks to identify and reﬂect on the factors critical to success in the industry of video games and new factors that may arise and contribute to the future success of this dynamic and constantly changing industry. Starting from the analysis of the structure and dynamics of the value chain in the video games industry, this work will discuss the most important changes that have taken place caused by the emergence of the Internet, in an attempt to redeﬁne and understand the new rules and opportunities for companies and players. These last have empowered their role and companies may now understand better the needs and demands of their current and potential players. Business models of video games are constantly evolving to fully adapt to the needs and preferences of users in areas such as platforms (via the Web browser, mobile applications, etc.), forms of payment (pay per download, subscription, payment for access, game extensions, etc.), or gaming devices (game consoles, computers, smartphones, tablets, etc.). Finally, some aspects of the Norwegian ecosystem are analyzed
The music business, as any other business with a strong online presence or that relies on digital technologies for its advancement, has become much more complex and intricate in recent years and there are now many more stakeholders in the music “ecosystem” than 20 or 30 years ago.
Who are these stakeholders, how do they relate to each other and how do they inﬂuence the music network? With these questions in mind this working paper aims to review the current state-of-the-art on new business models in the music industry by carrying out a structural analysis. It looks into diverse examples to illustrate how the value chain of the music business has been transforming in recent years to accommodate for (mostly technological) innovations in terms of music creation, production, distribution and market development. This leads me to propose a model of a value network for the music industry that reﬂects all this. A model that aims to add to the ongoing discussion regarding the reshaping of the music industry and its understanding, serving as the basis for future development of more useful models and tools for the industry and the research community.
Lastly, I also analyze the Norwegian market in its current state to try to reveal opportunities and vulnerabilities in order to suggest key areas of development for the future, including the kind of government action possible and desirable in the musical arena.
The purpose of this article was to explore the music festival as a music educational project by means of results drawn from a case study investigating one particular festival's impact on identity development, both for the individual member of the audience (musical identity) and for the local society (local identity). The theoretical framework was taken from theories of modernity, dealing with identity as a reflexive project, created and maintained by self-narratives. The study combined a survey among the festival audience with observations of festival events. The results showed that the festival mediated stories, myths, beliefs and values connected to music and that there was a contrast between the festival staff encouraging the development and the audience preferring the maintenance of musical identities. The festival also created different social rooms for musical activity. These features are discussed in a music educational perspective. Implications are also drawn for music educational practice and research.
Large scale cultural events often have idealistic aims of affecting participants and spectators in a positive manner, by widening public’s cultural understandings and horizons. The ‘Open Port’ motto chosen for the Stavanger region as European Capital of Culture in 2008 explicitly signalled such ambitions. This article takes the idea of a positive link between exposure to broad-ranging cultural events and tolerance for cultural diversity as a starting point. Nevertheless, there is seemingly little empirical support in the research literature for such a postulate. On this background we suggest a different line of arguments, based on the idea of relative deprivation. Rather than expecting positive change in the beliefs of those more exposed, this alternative hypothesis presumes that inhabitants away from the main centres of artistic and cultural activities, could react. They will often see themselves as left behind and kept out from the grand events, it is contended. In this way we hypothesise that local inhabitants living outside of the central areas will react negatively, by becoming less sympathetic. Special survey data from the region for the period 2007-2009 indicate empirical support for this alternative hypothesis, based on the idea of relative deprivation. At the same time there is little evidence of a possible link between higher exposure and increased tolerance. Multiple regression analysis with an index of cultural scepticism as the dependent variable shows basically no change in attitudes for those living close to main centres of Stavanger 2008 activities. At the same time there is a significant increase in cultural scepticism among local inhabitants living farther away from the central axis. Moreover, results from surveys at the national level confirm a picture of stability in cultural scepticism for Norwegians in general during the same period. This makes an explanation of the observed change for inhabitants living within the larger Stavanger region but outside the central axis, especially challenging. Although the empirical patterns are consistent with the idea of relative deprivation, these findings could not be regarded as a strong test of the hypothesis at this stage. Further research, in alternative settings and with supplementary measures is needed.
Cultural and heritage tourism began to expand as a mass phenomenon in the 1970s and ’80s with a considerable economic and social impact. It was a consequence of the self-development of the tourism industry and its need for diversification (Bull, 1991). During the previous decades and stimulated by a long period of unbroken economic growth in most developed countries, tourism enjoyed a great expansion (Timothy, 2011). This was largely based on standardized products, mainly offered by tour operators through the travel agencies system. The result was an increase in the number of destinations and resorts. Over the years, many of them have followed a life-cycle profile, from involvement and consolidation, to stagnation and, in some cases, even decline (Butler, 1980). So, the need to adapt the current offer to a more exigent demand, fuelled by a rising competition with new destinations, developed the specializations of many tourism areas and the search for added-value products. The resulting scene is characterized by being much more dynamic and competitive, in which a multitude of specialized offers proliferate at lower costs. Tourism products can be segmented by travel motivation (business, holiday, health, academic or religion, among many other driving forces), by user groups (families, senior citizens, professional people or students), by destination (cities, coast areas, countryside regions or countries), by time (holiday seasons, weekends, special events or business periods), and by the level of maturity of the destination (more or less emergent, with larger or weaker touristic supply, level of social reputation).
This chapter is about physicality in virtual space, where one generally does not expect to find any physicality according to research and literature. Here, working in virtual space includes interactions and cooperation through the mail, internet, Skype and video-conferencing. The authors use their own experience of collaborating and leading in a virtual project team. Their own personal accounts, impressions and insights reveal a story of organizational cooperation where physicality matters for developing relations and leadership in virtual space. The piece reveals how an aesthetic consciousness of self and others intensifies in virtual communication, especially in relation to the senses of seeing and listening. For instance, the authors describe perception of the self is possible on SKYPE in a way that is not possible in face-to-face meetings (allowing one to realize if one is not dressed ‘properly’). They argue it is important to identify the physical ‘digital self’ and realize the challenges of being fit to operate across time zones, having personal and public boundaries blurred, as well as the heightened sensitivity to imagine what is left out in a virtual relationship. The examples illustrate what kind of sensuous cues become central in virtual communication. The chapter brings forth the need to sensitize to the physicality and to develop skills to perceive and act on it.
Denne rapport ønsker at bidrage til, at studerende på de kunstneriske uddannelser i Norden styrkes i deres forudsætninger for at kunne om- sætte deres kreative og kunstneriske kompetencer til et bæredygtigt arbejdsliv. Et bæredygtigt arbejdsliv er betegnelsen for, at man efter endt uddannelse arbejder fagligt på passende niveau og kan understøtte sig selv økonomisk.
The world has a shared history and a rich, diverse cultural heritage. This heritage is cherished globally as an asset that belongs to us all, yet gives our societies their identity and binds them together, nurturing a rich cultural and creative present and future. That is why stakeholders of the creative and cultural world must do everything in their power to preserve this heritage and the diversity of actual cultural content, amid a political and economic climate that is subject to major upheavals.
The idea behind this report is that the economic weight of cultural and creative industries (CCI) in mature and emerging economies is partially described, misunderstood and undervalued. This is why the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC — the body representing authors’ societies worldwide) — decided to commission a global study of the economic and social impact of CCI, focusing especially upon revenues and employment.
Over the past fifteen years the music industry has experienced a disruptive process of digital transformation that has reshaped most aspects of the industry; in 2015 the contours of a “new music economy” have begun to emerge. The structure and mechanics of these evolutionary processes vary considerably between continents, and this book examines these processes within Europe, America and Asia. The contributors offer a range of theoretical perspectives, as well as empirical findings from the social sciences and business, as well as the media industries. They offer a holistic understanding of the forces shaping the new music economy, and shed some light on the impact of these forces on the ways in which music is created, aggregated and distributed, and on the economic and social consequences for industry producers and consumers.
The economic geography of music is evolving as new digital technologies, organizational forms, market dynamics and consumer behavior continue to restructure the industry. This book is an international collection of case studies examining the spatial dynamics of today’s music industry. Drawing on research from a diverse range of cities such as Santiago, Toronto, Paris, New York, Amsterdam, London, and Berlin, this volume helps readers understand how the production and consumption of music is changing at multiple scales – from global firms to local entrepreneurs; and, in multiple settings – from established clusters to burgeoning scenes. The volume is divided into interrelated sections and offers an engaging and immersive look at today’s central players, processes, and spaces of music production and consumption. Academic students and researchers across the social sciences, including human geography, sociology, economics, and cultural studies, will find this volume helpful in answering questions about how and where music is financed, produced, marketed, distributed, curated and consumed in the digital age.
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