The purpose of this article was to explore the music festival as a music educational project by means of results drawn from a case study investigating one particular festival's impact on identity development, both for the individual member of the audience (musical identity) and for the local society (local identity). The theoretical framework was taken from theories of modernity, dealing with identity as a reflexive project, created and maintained by self-narratives. The study combined a survey among the festival audience with observations of festival events. The results showed that the festival mediated stories, myths, beliefs and values connected to music and that there was a contrast between the festival staff encouraging the development and the audience preferring the maintenance of musical identities. The festival also created different social rooms for musical activity. These features are discussed in a music educational perspective. Implications are also drawn for music educational practice and research.
Large scale cultural events often have idealistic aims of affecting participants and spectators in a positive manner, by widening public’s cultural understandings and horizons. The ‘Open Port’ motto chosen for the Stavanger region as European Capital of Culture in 2008 explicitly signalled such ambitions. This article takes the idea of a positive link between exposure to broad-ranging cultural events and tolerance for cultural diversity as a starting point. Nevertheless, there is seemingly little empirical support in the research literature for such a postulate. On this background we suggest a different line of arguments, based on the idea of relative deprivation. Rather than expecting positive change in the beliefs of those more exposed, this alternative hypothesis presumes that inhabitants away from the main centres of artistic and cultural activities, could react. They will often see themselves as left behind and kept out from the grand events, it is contended. In this way we hypothesise that local inhabitants living outside of the central areas will react negatively, by becoming less sympathetic. Special survey data from the region for the period 2007-2009 indicate empirical support for this alternative hypothesis, based on the idea of relative deprivation. At the same time there is little evidence of a possible link between higher exposure and increased tolerance. Multiple regression analysis with an index of cultural scepticism as the dependent variable shows basically no change in attitudes for those living close to main centres of Stavanger 2008 activities. At the same time there is a significant increase in cultural scepticism among local inhabitants living farther away from the central axis. Moreover, results from surveys at the national level confirm a picture of stability in cultural scepticism for Norwegians in general during the same period. This makes an explanation of the observed change for inhabitants living within the larger Stavanger region but outside the central axis, especially challenging. Although the empirical patterns are consistent with the idea of relative deprivation, these findings could not be regarded as a strong test of the hypothesis at this stage. Further research, in alternative settings and with supplementary measures is needed.
Cultural and heritage tourism began to expand as a mass phenomenon in the 1970s and ’80s with a considerable economic and social impact. It was a consequence of the self-development of the tourism industry and its need for diversification (Bull, 1991). During the previous decades and stimulated by a long period of unbroken economic growth in most developed countries, tourism enjoyed a great expansion (Timothy, 2011). This was largely based on standardized products, mainly offered by tour operators through the travel agencies system. The result was an increase in the number of destinations and resorts. Over the years, many of them have followed a life-cycle profile, from involvement and consolidation, to stagnation and, in some cases, even decline (Butler, 1980). So, the need to adapt the current offer to a more exigent demand, fuelled by a rising competition with new destinations, developed the specializations of many tourism areas and the search for added-value products. The resulting scene is characterized by being much more dynamic and competitive, in which a multitude of specialized offers proliferate at lower costs. Tourism products can be segmented by travel motivation (business, holiday, health, academic or religion, among many other driving forces), by user groups (families, senior citizens, professional people or students), by destination (cities, coast areas, countryside regions or countries), by time (holiday seasons, weekends, special events or business periods), and by the level of maturity of the destination (more or less emergent, with larger or weaker touristic supply, level of social reputation).
This chapter is about physicality in virtual space, where one generally does not expect to find any physicality according to research and literature. Here, working in virtual space includes interactions and cooperation through the mail, internet, Skype and video-conferencing. The authors use their own experience of collaborating and leading in a virtual project team. Their own personal accounts, impressions and insights reveal a story of organizational cooperation where physicality matters for developing relations and leadership in virtual space. The piece reveals how an aesthetic consciousness of self and others intensifies in virtual communication, especially in relation to the senses of seeing and listening. For instance, the authors describe perception of the self is possible on SKYPE in a way that is not possible in face-to-face meetings (allowing one to realize if one is not dressed ‘properly’). They argue it is important to identify the physical ‘digital self’ and realize the challenges of being fit to operate across time zones, having personal and public boundaries blurred, as well as the heightened sensitivity to imagine what is left out in a virtual relationship. The examples illustrate what kind of sensuous cues become central in virtual communication. The chapter brings forth the need to sensitize to the physicality and to develop skills to perceive and act on it.
Denne rapport ønsker at bidrage til, at studerende på de kunstneriske uddannelser i Norden styrkes i deres forudsætninger for at kunne om- sætte deres kreative og kunstneriske kompetencer til et bæredygtigt arbejdsliv. Et bæredygtigt arbejdsliv er betegnelsen for, at man efter endt uddannelse arbejder fagligt på passende niveau og kan understøtte sig selv økonomisk.
The world has a shared history and a rich, diverse cultural heritage. This heritage is cherished globally as an asset that belongs to us all, yet gives our societies their identity and binds them together, nurturing a rich cultural and creative present and future. That is why stakeholders of the creative and cultural world must do everything in their power to preserve this heritage and the diversity of actual cultural content, amid a political and economic climate that is subject to major upheavals.
The idea behind this report is that the economic weight of cultural and creative industries (CCI) in mature and emerging economies is partially described, misunderstood and undervalued. This is why the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC — the body representing authors’ societies worldwide) — decided to commission a global study of the economic and social impact of CCI, focusing especially upon revenues and employment.
Over the past fifteen years the music industry has experienced a disruptive process of digital transformation that has reshaped most aspects of the industry; in 2015 the contours of a “new music economy” have begun to emerge. The structure and mechanics of these evolutionary processes vary considerably between continents, and this book examines these processes within Europe, America and Asia. The contributors offer a range of theoretical perspectives, as well as empirical findings from the social sciences and business, as well as the media industries. They offer a holistic understanding of the forces shaping the new music economy, and shed some light on the impact of these forces on the ways in which music is created, aggregated and distributed, and on the economic and social consequences for industry producers and consumers.
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