Estimating the economic impacts of festivals and events: a research guide

CRC for Sustainable Tourism
The study's focus is to quantify the overall economic impact upon the local area of Snowy Region (Australia) regarding several cultural events, as well as supplying basic understanding of the processes involved within the economical impact assessment. It differs from many other studies into the economic impacts of events in that the focus of attention is the small regional economy, with a focus on the sub-State regional economic impact, where both the events and the regional economy in which those are held are smaller than the usual cases found in most economical impact studies and with the added challenge of the lack of industrial interconnectivity (core to the input-output model).
Working Paper

The Rise and Fall of Festivals. Reflections on the Salzburg Festival

The paper takes a closer look at cultural festivals such as musical or operatic festivals. From an economic viewpoint the paper shows that such festivals offer great artistic and economic opportunities, but that at the same time these opportunities are also easy to destroy. Empirical evidence from the Salzburg Festival show that government support can have negative effects on the innovative and economically success of festivals by introducing distorting incentives and imposing all sorts of restrictions. The paper draws policy suggestions on how the state can support art festivals.
Working Paper

Kulturfestivalen. Scenekunstens markedsplass

Waade, A. M.
Centre for Cultural Research, University of Aarhus, Aarhus
Working Paper no. 112-0
Working Paper

Creativity and management control - the diversity of festival budgets

Knardal, Per Ståle,
Pettersen, Inger Johanne
International Journal of Managing Projects in Business

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the budget, when split into a network of projects, can act as a management tool to balance control with creativity.

Design/methodology/approach – A case study is used to discuss the budget in a large Norwegian festival. Simons’ (1995) concept of interactive use of budgets is applied for the analysis of empirical findings. Especially, the authors focus on the design and use of the budget and how it is aligned with the specific characteristics of festivals as economic organizations.

Findings – The findings support earlier research which focusses on the need to balance between control and dynamic changes to successfully manage festivals. This study gives a detailed knowledge on how managers use budgets to combine management control with creativity and dynamic adaptions.

Originality/value – This study contributes to a detailed understanding of how managers can use budgets as tools to stabilize between uncertainty, creativity and control.

Keywords Budgets, Balancing creativity and control, Functions of budgets, Interactive and diagnostic use

Paper type Case study

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Knutepunkt - Kriterium for knutepunktstatus og vurdering av gjennomføring av knutepunktoppdraget

Kultur- og kyrkjedepartementet
Stortingsmelding 10, Kultur- og Kyrkjedepartementet, Oslo

Barents festivals and the development of local identity

Karlsen, S.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå

The aim of the present study was to investigate how three specific music festivals, situated in the Barents region, contributed to development of local identity in their respective host municipalities. The aim was further explored through three research questions focussing on 1) how the festivals cooperated with local agents; 2) how the festivals participated in and contributed to processes of glocalisation; and 3) what kinds of stories that were told through the festivals about their respective host municipalities. The festivals investigated was the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord-Norge (Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Finland). The study was grounded in modernity theory as well as previous research on festivals’ contribution to development of local identity. Concerning the methodological aspects of the study, it was designed using an embedded multiple case-design, in which each of the festivals constituted one case and the three research questions functioned as the cases’ units of analysis. Hence, within-case as well as cross-case analysis was enabled. The empirical data consisted of field notes from participant observation of in all 58 festival events; interviews with the festivals’ directors and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation in the form of festival programmes. The findings showed that all three festivals had extensive cooperation with a wide selection of local agents or stakeholders but also that the range and profoundness of this coopera tion seemed to depend on the festival management’s awareness of and focus towards the necessity of building and maintaining stakeholder relationships. This awareness seemed further to depend on the festival’s perceived self-identity, its degree of professionalism and institutional status. Regarding the participation in and contribution to processes of glocalisation, 17 aspects were found that were divided into the categories of reaching out; letting in; facilitating for meetings; and musical glocalisation. The festivals were seen to be narrators of history as well as telling meta-narratives about their host municipalities and thereby producing and reproducing collective self-images. The latter was exemplified in the Festspel i Pite Älvdal emphasising the local municipality as a centre in its own reality; the Festspillene i Nord-Norge strengthening the urban and displaying strong, international bonds; and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali emphasising connections towards other peripheral and rural communities.


Nasjonal festivalstatistikk 2015

Rykkja, A.,
Ericsson, B.

Rapporten presenterer statistikk for musikkfestivaler og en mindre gruppe «ikke-musikk»-festivaler for året 2015. I noen tabeller og figurer er tall og data fra 2014-undersøkelsen tatt med i illustrasjonsøyemed og for å vise forskjeller i datagrunnlag for 2014 og 2015. Denne presentasjonsmetoden er ikke brukt for å si noe om utvikling eller endring mellom to år. Datagrunnlaget, ulik sammensetning av populasjon og det korte tidsintervallet gir ikke grunnlag for å si noe om eventuelle endringer.


Edinburgh Festivals Impact Study

BOP Consulting
The study presents the aggregate findings of the impact assessment study for all Edinburgh Festivals and it builds on the Impact Study conducted in 2004/05 by SQW which also identified that Edinburgh's Festivals have an impact that goes beyond their economic effects. While the assessment of economic impact remains a key concern, there was a shared recognition among the Festivals and the stakeholders that it is important to present a more rounded argument about the value of the Festivals. The study sets out to take a 360 degree approach to assess impact that considers social, cultural, environmental and media aspects in addition to the economic effects, thus enabling the Festivals to demonstrate their wider value across Scotland. The study has two main objectives: to produce an updated impact study that looks at economic, social, cultural, media and environmental impacts and that allows a comparison with the earlier version of 2004/05; and to develop a method of ongoing assessment that is owned by the Festivals themselves in the form of a new impact assessment framework and data collection process.

A Critical Comparative Study of Visitor Motivations for Attending Music Festivals: A Case Study of Glastonbury and V Festival

Event Management. 13(3) 181-196
13(3) 181-196
A global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed rapidly since the early 1900s. This phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires sustained development and growth in the future. Music festivals are unique events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, while music-based events are an extremely popular form of entertainment, research exploring the motivations of music festival audiences is sparse, especially from a UK perspective. Crompton and McKay contend that event managers should strive to better understand the motives of festival attendance in order to design better products and services for them and because motives are a precursor of satisfaction and a factor in decision making, this in turn can lead to greater attendance. This study critically compares the visitor motivations for attending two UK-based music festivals to challenge and ultimately support existing ideas developed from similar research overseas. The article establishes some of the first research into this area within the UK and challenges common assumptions from those in industry. A range of secondary research was considered and a review of existing literature on the subject was undertaken. Although the sample size was relatively small, the results showed that socializing with friends and family was a primary motive. Most importantly, the article supported the notion that multiple motivations come into play and it suggests that it is risky for festival managers to rely solely on the theme of the event itself. It is equally important to create a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences. Several recommendations were made for existing and future managers including focusing on realigning marketing and service strategies. Recommendations were also made for future research in terms of adopting new methodological approaches including the use of multiple means of analysis. The article finally challenges the nature of the underpinning theory and questions the reason that so much of what is understood is still based in the field of sociology in tourism, with very little underpinning theory dedicated to the events industry, despite its emergence as an academic field over a decade ago.
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