This paper examines how performing artists balance between economic and artistic risk-taking within the performing arts sector. The paper is based on a comparative study, including qualitative interviews with performing artists working in three different theatres in three different countries: England, Norway and the Netherlands. The paper discuss how different ways of organizing theatres and different theatre policy represent different systems of economic risk managing, and further how they facilitate artistic risk taking. The author identifies three different approaches to risk management in these three countries: a collectivization of risk, an institutionalization of risk and an individualization of risk. Theoretically, the paper makes use of, and criticizes the work sociology developed by Ulrich Becks and Richard Sennet, as well as welfare theory, including Esping-Andersen.
Både forskere og offentlige utredere har overvurdert tendensen til festivalisering av norsk kulturliv. Festivaliseringen – det vil si etableringen av nye festivaler, antall festival-arrangementer og folks besøk på festivaler – har nok økt en god del fram til et stykke ut på 2000-tallet. Men seinere ser det ut til at både antall etableringer, arrangementer og deltakelse har stabilisert seg på et visst nivå, som ikke er svært høyt sammenlignet med andre kulturaktiviteter.
Forestillingen om at utgifter til festivaler og begivenhetskultur har slått tungt – og stadig tyngre – inn i kommunal kulturøkonomi, er etter alt å dømme misvisende. De kommunale utgiftene til drift av festivaler har heller gått ned de seinere år. En mer finmasket Kostra-statistikk etter 2008 tyder dessuten på at økte driftsutgifter til kommunale kultur- og idrettsbygg/-anlegg er et mye mer påtakelig fenomen enn økte kommunale utgifter til festivaler og begivenhetskultur.
Enger-utvalgets påstand om en stor vekst i de kommunale driftsutgiftene til idrett generelt blir dermed også noe misvisende. Mens driftsutgiftene til kommunale idrettsbygg/-anlegg utvilsomt vokste kraftig, gikk øvrig støtte til «idrett og tilskudd til andres idrettsanlegg» en god del ned, iallfall fra 2008 til 2016
The sphere of arts and culture has been going through a process of economic reevaluation during the last few decades. Parallel to the rise of a creative economy discourse, which both in its political and scientific forms has highlighted the economic significance of culture and arts, entrepreneurship has become a feature in the cultural policy of many countries. In this article, we compare how entrepreneurship is established and used as a concept in cultural policy discourses in two Nordic countries, Norway and Finland. Through analyzing policy plans and documents, we discuss what is seen as positive cultural or artistic activity in the framework of entrepreneurship, and we identify the eligible cultural subjects of this discourse.
From cultural to creative industries An analysis of the implications of the “creative industries” approach to arts and media policy making in the United Kingdom
This article analyses the cultural policy implications in the United Kingdom of a shift in terminology from cultural to creative industries. It argues that the use of the term “creative industries” can only be understood in the context of information society policy. It draws its political and ideological power from the prestige and economic importance attached to concepts of innovation, information, information workers and the impact of information and communication technologies drawn from information society theory. This sustains the unjustified claim of the cultural sector as a key economic growth sector within the global economy and creates a coalition of disparate interests around the extension of intellectual property rights. In the final analysis, it legitimates a return to an artist‐centred, supply side defence of state cultural subsidies that is in contradiction to the other major aim of cultural policy – wider access.
This article analyses and contextualises a variety of relationships between the cultural industries and cultural policy. A principal aim is to examine policies explicitly formulated as cultural (or creative) industries policies. What lies behind such policies? How do they relate to other kinds of cultural policy, including those more oriented towards media, communications, arts and heritage? The first section asks how the cultural industries became such an important idea in cultural policy, when those industries had been largely invisible in traditional (arts‐ and heritage‐based) policy for many decades. What changed and what drove the major changes? In the second section, we look at a number of problems and conceptual tensions arising from the new importance of the cultural industries in contemporary public policy, including problems concerning definition and scope, and the accurate mapping of the sector, but also tensions surrounding the insertion of commercial and industrial culture into cultural policy regimes characterised by legacies of romanticism and idealism. We also look at problems surrounding the academic division of labour in this area of study. We conclude by summarising some of the main contemporary challenges facing cultural policy and cultural policy studies with regard to the cultural industries. The piece also serves to introduce the contributions to a special issue of International Journal of Cultural Policy on the cultural industries and cultural policy.
Volunteer Perception of Learning and Satisfaction in a Mega-Event: The Case of the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer
Volunteers' performance is a central success factor for many mega-events. This article focuses on volunteers' learning and satisfaction during the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer. The 50 students in the sample report an overall satisfaction with their participation. Important variables that were discovered related to volunteers' satisfaction include personal network, participation in the celebratory atmosphere, job-related competence, welfare issues, and job characteristics. With regard to volunteers' learning, they experienced increased social skills, job-specific competence, and knowledge about society. The results from this exploratory study clearly show the need for further research on volunteer management at mega-events.
This article reports the results of a study of volunteers' continuance commitment and reasons to quit at a festival. The study of 221 volunteers at a large jazz festival in Norway indicated that both motivational factors and factors related to the festival context were important in explaining volunteers' continuance commitment. Furthermore, about 30% of the volunteers had considered quitting as a volunteer. Reasons why they had considered quitting as volunteers at the festival were also identified.
Who participates in the European Capital of Culture? This article analyses participation in Stavanger, European Capital of Culture (ECOC) in 2008, drawing on data from a survey conducted among a cross-section of the population of the city and its closest surrounds. It examines whether there is systematic variation in the number and type of events attended across key social background characteristics such as gender, age, education and income, as well as interest in culture. It finds systematic, but small differences between the genders, age groups and people of different educational attainment, and no differences between people with high and low income. Participation levels are high in all social strata. However, interest in culture is an important predictor of participation. Differences in social background and cultural interest matter more for participation in high-brow events. The authors conclude that the ECOC event was fairly inclusive of different population segments.
The concepts and roles of new, modern festivals of today are the most striking and the most visible within the field of culture. Alongside their popularity and multiple set of new “voices”, there come politics, money and business. Traditionally, this combination of thought and ideology would eventually escalate into a conflict of interests. Through empirical examples the author of this paper will give an outline of how such a conflict emerges by using the “model of conflict” by Eric Brahm. He will outline categories of agents within the field of festivals.
Karin Ibenholt er ansvarlig for denne databasen. Send gjerne forslag til endringer eller bidrag til henne.