Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Music festivals: Transformations in non-metropolitan places, and in creative work.

GIBSON, C
Faculty of Science - Papers. 65-8
This paper addresses the theme of this special issue of MIA in the context of music festivals. It discusses the continuing growth of music festivals as avenues for musical performance, and for regional economic development, and considers what festivals mean for musicians in terms of changing audience demographics and the conditions of work. Festivals are increasingly important for musicians in building audiences and incomes. They have proliferated particularly in rural, coastal and ex-urban parts of Australia, linked to day-tripper and short stay tourism and the wider socioeconomic transition of those places. Festivals both reflect and contribute to social and cultural changes, such as the diffusion of musical genres with specialist audiences, inward migration of particular demographic groups and shifting place identities. They also offer new opportunities for places seeking to develop tourism, and local music and performance-based industries. This paper explains these trends, and draws on results from a recent large research exercise that sought to document the extent and impact of festivals. Although they are not new, festivals continue to reconfigure musical touring networks, audiences and performance opportunities. Such reconfigurations have occurred with less public fanfare than developments surrounding digital technology and downloading cultures, but their influence on the working lives of musicians is no less profound.
2007
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Resource dependency, costs and revenues of a street festival.

ANDERSSON, T.,
GETZ, D.
Tourism Economics 13(1), 143-162
The financial position of a tourism-oriented street festival in Sweden is examined within the context of resource dependency and stakeholder management theory, focused on testing two hypotheses derived from this theoretical base. Data from a five-year period revealed how costs associated with the strongest stakeholders (that is, with the greatest bargaining power) greatly increased relative to costs associated with weak stakeholders. The festival was also more able to increase its revenues from weak stakeholders than from those in strong bargaining positions. Conclusions are drawn on how this case confirms and elaborates upon theory, particularly by applying it to the festival sector. Management implications are also drawn on how festival organizations should manage relationships when they hold strong or weak positions relative to stakeholders.
2007
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

The meaning of cultural festivals

CRESPI-VALLBONA, M.,
RICHARDS, G.
International Journal of Cultural Policy. 13(1) 103-122
Cultural events are increasingly becoming arenas of discourse enabling people to express their views on wider cultural, social and political issues. Often the debates polarize into those advocating change and those wishing to preserve traditional or local culture in the face of modernization and globalization. This article analyses the discourse on cultural festivals from the perspective of stakeholders involved in traditional and popular culture events in Catalunya. There is generally a high level of agreement about the aims of cultural events and the cultural content that is appropriate for them. In particular, the importance of cultural events in underpinning Catalan identity is seen as being important. However, stakeholders tend to differ more in the meanings attached to concepts such as identity, with policy makers exhibiting a greater emphasis on economic and political issues, whereas cultural producers are more concerned with social aspects of identity. However, the general consensus on the social role of cultural events between the different stakeholders may be one explanation for the relatively vibrant festival culture in Catalonia.
2007
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Are short duration festival tourist attractions?

MCKERCHER, B.,
MEI, W.,
TSE, T.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 14(1) 55-66
This paper examines the value of short duration cultural festivals as tourist attractions, with special emphasis on their role in attracting and retaining international tourists. The study examined visitors to three festivals held in Hong Kong during spring 2004. Relatively few tourists attended these events. Moreover, most were unaware of the festivals prior to arrival and about 80% made the decision to participate only when in the destination. Tourism attraction systems’ theory reinforces the importance of awareness building prior to departure and suggests that in-destination awareness creation is ineffective in generating demand for these types of events, especially among short stay tourists. However, the costs associated with creating awareness in generating regions may not produce sufficiently valuable results, given the small window of opportunity for participation and the specialist nature of the market.
2006
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Arts Festivals and the City.

QUINN B.
Urban Studies. 42(5-6) 927-943
There has been a remarkable rise in the number of urban arts festivals in recent decades. The outcomes of cities' engagement with arts festivals, however, remain little understood, particularly in social and cultural terms. This article reviews existing literature on urban festivals and argues that city authorities tend to disregard the social value of festivals and to construe them simply as vehicles of economic generation or as 'quick fix' solutions to city image problems. While such an approach renders certain benefits, it is ultimately quite limiting. If arts festivals are to achieve their undoubted potential in animating communities, celebrating diversity and improving quality of life, then they must be conceived of in a more holistic way by urban managers. Currently, the tasks of conceptualizing the problems at issue and devising appropriate policies are hampered by the scarcity of empirical research conducted in the area.
2005
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Event Management. Does the music matter?

BOWEN H. ET AL.
Motivations for attending a music festival. 9(3), 155-164
Music festivals are unique special events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, research exploring the motivations of music festival visitors is sparse. Recognizing the potential for music festivals to contribute to host communities, this study aims to explore motivations for attending a large, multi-day music festival. On-site visitor interviews were conducted at Celebrate Fairfax!, an annual music festival held in Virginia (USA). Cluster analysis of attendance motivations revealed four groupings of visitors, which were given the following names based on their patterns of motivations: “Just Being Social,” “Enrichment Over Music,” “The Music Matters,” and “Love It All.” These groups differed based on race, marital status, and household income. Marginal sex differences were also found. The results of this study suggest that music festival planners can use different marketing tactics to broaden a festival's appeal and that it is risky for event managers to rely on the music itself or a specific artist to draw large festival crowds. Equally important is creating a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences.
2005
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Measuring the economic and social impacts of local authority events.

WOOD, E.
International Journal of Public Sector Management. 18(1) 37-53
Purpose – Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events, which can take up a substantial amount of the tourism, leisure or arts and cultural budget is rarely assessed in a systematic and objective manner. This article describes the importance of measuring the impacts of such events. Design/methodology/approach – The methods for assessing the success of local authority events are trialed through the use of a case study involving two events organized by Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council. Findings - An evaluation of the methods, after conducting the case study, indicates that the techniques produced robust data that was valuable in planning future events and in securing funding. The relative simplicity of the methods used will help to ensure that similar evaluations can be carried out in‐house for little cost for future public events. Originality/value – This article sets out practical guidelines for undertaking the measurement and evaluation of some of the major impacts of local authority events. Similar methods can be used by other public sector organizations involved in hosting public events.
2005
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Visitor management for festivals and events.

YEOMAN, I. ,
Robertson, M.,
McMahon-Beattie, U.
Festivals and events management: an international arts and culture perspective. 65-79
2004
New Zealand
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Festivals, events and the destination

DERRETT, R.
Butterworth Architecture, Oxford
This chapter explores the relationship between festivals and events and a destination's prosperity, identity, tourism image and marketing strategies. It explains the roles festivals and events play as attractions and markers in the tourism system. It identifies qualities that make festivals special. It also explores the links between event management and host communities, government at all levels, media, community cultural development and specific special interest sectors.
2004
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Music festival tourism in Finland

TIKKANEN, I.
13th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research , Aalborg University, Denmark
With the rise of Finnish music culture both locally and internationally, the number of music festivals have grown all over the country making a relatively small impact to the country's tourism. This paper attempts to describe the music festivals in Finland from the tourism point of view, while revising the important marketing tools available to promote them. The paper concludes with a case of an international chamber music festival.
2004
Artikkel

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