Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Policy for sustainable and responsible festivals and events: institutionalization of a new paradigm.

GETZ, D.
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism Leisure and Events 03/2009. 1(1) 61-78
The scope of public policy for planned events is delimited, giving specific attention to attainment of a sustainable and responsible events sector. Justifications for public‐sector involvement in planned events are discussed, including consideration of public good, social equity, return on investment, efficiency, psychic benefits, and market failure arguments. It is argued that both the worth of an event, and its impacts, should be evaluated using a triple‐bottom‐line (TBL) approach. For each of the three dimensions of TBL (economic, social/cultural and environmental) possible goals, related policy initiatives, and a number of performance measures are suggested. In the final part of this paper, the institutionalization of a new paradigm is discussed, including specific advice on what is needed to embed the new sustainable and responsible events paradigm in public policy.
2009
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Progressing socio-cultural impact evaluation for festivals.

ROBERTSON, M ET AL
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 1(2) 156-169
The research project reported in this paper set out to advance the knowledge base of socio-cultural festival evaluation and, through industry and academic liaison, produce a robust, comprehensive set of indicators. The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to offer a summary of the synthesis of literature relating to methodologies for evaluating the socio‐cultural effects of festivals; second, to identify the emerging themes resulting from the existing literature; and third, as part of an evaluation of stakeholder perception, to present a comparative rating of a UK-wide cross-section of festival leaders (n = 60) of core impacts and their significance. The methods adopted were based on a comprehensive review of secondary literature in relation to the evaluation of socio‐cultural impacts of festivals, followed by telephone interviews with a sample of UK festival directors.
2009
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Public sector evaluation of festivals and special events.

O'SULLIVAN, D. ET AL
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events. 1(1) 19-36
This research project set out to explore Unitary Authority (UA) involvement in festivals and special events across Wales. It considers the level and nature of UA involvement and investigates activity by event purpose; reasons for, and characteristics of, UA engagement; and, crucially, the extent and nature of event evaluation. The study's aim was to begin the development of a baseline of information for further research into the growing use of festivals and special events as a strategy for local economic development in Wales. A quantitative survey approach facilitated a comprehensive snapshot of UA responses whilst also incorporating discursive elements. A telephone survey was designed and undertaken with representatives of all 22 UA departments responsible for festivals and events in Wales. The research reveals a significant level of festival and special event activity across Wales, supported primarily for its perceived socio‐cultural value. However, evaluation would appear to be focused on improving processes and measuring economic outputs rather than assessing whether socio‐cultural objectives are being achieved. Whilst overwhelmingly positive about efforts to improve approaches to evaluation, respondents held clear views about the complications most likely to hamper any such efforts. These responses focused upon the need for flexibility, cost effectiveness and comparability across festival and special event typologies.
2009
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Tourism as a mixed industry: Differences between private, public and not-for-profit festivals.

GETZ, D. ,
ANDERSSON, T.
Tourism Management 12/2009. 30(6) 847-856
This paper discusses important policy and management implications of tourism as a mixed industry in which public, not-for-profit, and private organizations such as festivals both compete and collaborate in creating the tourist product. To illustrate, four samples of festivals from the UK, Australia, Norway and Sweden are systematically compared in terms of their ownership, governance, structure, and content. Although the festivals offered a similar product and had similar mandates, they differed considerably in terms of revenue sources, cost structure, use of volunteers, corporate sponsorship, and decision-making. These differences are potentially important to destinations that view festivals as attractions and use them in place marketing. Implications are drawn for festival management and tourism policy, and recommendations are made for extending this line of inquiry to the tourism industry as a whole.
2009
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Analyzing the Role of Festivals and Events in Regional Development.

MOSCARDO, G.
Event Management. 11(1-2) 23-32
While tourism has a long history of use as a tool for regional development, events and festivals are a more recent policy option. In both cases the emphasis is often placed on the potential positive economic impacts. In both cases there has also been little research conducted into a wider range of outcomes or into the factors and processes that contribute to these outcomes. This article examines the potential role of festivals and events in regional development with a particular focus on effects other than economic. The study reported here used a conceptual framework developed to describe regional tourism development to explore 36 case studies describing festivals and events in a regional development context. The content analysis identified 13 themes as associated with the effectiveness of festivals and events in supporting regional development. These themes were further organized according to their connections to the three key constructs of building social capital, enhancing community capacity, and support for non-tourism-related products and services. These constructs are then used to build a preliminary conceptual framework to understand the role of festivals and events in regional development.
2008
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Cultural Events as Potential Drivers of Urban Regeneration: An Empirical Illustration.

PAIOLA, M.
Industry and Innovation. 15(5) 513-529
In this paper the relational dimension of cultural production is explored, with explicit attention to the impact of cultural events on networks and creativity in local contexts. Three qualitative empirical cases are produced, showing that networks have a crucial importance in sustaining spatial proximity‐based creativity. Three models of local cultural events are identified and valued qualitatively in terms of their impact on local creativity, concluding that the value of an event in its territory is dependent on the organizational frame of the specific event. In particular, the bottom‐up network-based model appears to be able to favor local activation and creativity spanning, thereby leveraging local resources.
2008
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Festivals: seeking artistic distinction in a crowded field.

KLAIC, D.
In Anheier, H.K., Isar, R. Y. (eds): Cultures and Globalization: The Cultural Economy. Sage Publishing. s260-269
This chapter argues that expectations of economic returns from international artistic festivals are highly exaggerated: only a handful among them actually generate such returns thanks to factors such as location, size, tourist appeal and reputation. The author reviews the economic conditions of festival production in different regions of the world and pleads for public support, rather than tenuous sponsorship arrangements, as the key guarantor of stability and quality. Festivals generate cultural capital but fail to grow it by using digital technology and building client loyalty among audiences. Public authorities rarely develop clear funding policies that set cultural, social and economic objectives for the festivals they support and provide criteria for monitoring, evaluation and funding decisions.
2008
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Stakeholder Management Strategies of Festivals.

ANDERSSON, T.,
GETZ, D.
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism. 9(3), 199-220
The extent to which festivals can function as sustainable attractions, while fulfilling their social and cultural roles at the community level, is an issue of considerable importance. In this context, sustainability will often depend upon the political and tangible support of key stakeholders. Accordingly, this article addresses festival stakeholder issues and related management strategies, with the dual aims of contributing to event management theory and improving festival viability. A questionnaire survey of 14 live-music festivals in Sweden yielded data on stakeholder types, dependency issues, and stakeholder management strategies. With regard to their long-term sustainability, festival managers indicated the importance of attaining ‘institutional status,’ occupying a unique ‘niche’ in the community, sustaining committed stakeholders, and practicing constant innovation.
2008
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Urban ethnic festivals, neighborhoods, and the multiple realities of marketing place.

MCCLINCHEY, K. A.
Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 25(3-4) 251-264
Cultural festivals are often planned as part of place marketing, image branding, and civic boosterism to aid in the regeneration of urban areas. While complexities surrounding place, marketing, and festivals have been acknowledged with regard to large scale events, little is known about ethnic festivals in urban neighborhoods. It is important to understand festival places and the factors that challenge place marketing in urban neighborhood spaces. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the multiple realities of place with respect to ethnic festivals. It is a case study approach of four neighborhoods and their street festivals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A discussion reveals such key realities as politics and image, social identity and representation, cultural authenticity and neighborhood differentiation as concerns for festival promotion and place marketing. In order to ensure ethnic festivals instil strong meanings of place and belonging for community members, place marketing must acknowledge the complexities of places and market and manage them properly relative to the developing community. The multiple realities of places at the scale of festival, neighborhood, and city need to be acknowledged in order to address the deeper meanings and complexities that exist with regard to these unique and evolving ethnic spaces.
2008
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Festival Stakeholder roles: concepts and case studies.

GETZ, D. ,
ANDERSSON, T. ,
LARSON, M.
Event Management 10(2) 103-122
In this exploratory research, multiple case studies of various types of festivals in two countries reveal how festival managers work with stakeholders and who they are. Stakeholders' roles are categorized as regulator, facilitator, co producer, supplier, collaborator, audience, and the impacted, and the results show clearly that key stakeholders take multiple roles affecting the organization. Practical implications are drawn for event managers regarding the identification, evaluation, and management of stakeholder relationships. Drawing on resource dependency and stakeholder theories, a conceptual model is presented that illustrates the conclusion that festivals and events are produced within and by a set of managed stakeholder relationships. Recommendations are made for development of this line of research and theory building.
2007
Artikkel

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