|Many large-scale festivals and special events are held in public places, requiring formal authorization and contractual arrangements with government entities prior to operation. Event organizers may require other government services such as traffic control, emergency medical rescue, and refuse collection, with their financial costs either paid by the organizer or waived or discounted by the government provider. The purpose of this study was to assess the state and local tax revenues generated from expenditures attributed to a large-scale staged tourist attraction, the 1993 Kodak Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta, Inc. (KAIBF, Inc.). Local and state gross receipts sales tax rates were applied to direct expenditure totals to estimate the fiscal impact of the event. In this case, the City of Albuquerque directly received $2,221,720 in gross receipts and lodging tax revenues, and the State of New Mexico received $1,323,237 in gross receipts taxes and $900,041 in gasoline tax revenues. By describing the economic stimulus and local tax revenues generated by the special event, the organizer bargains from a position of strength and may possess considerable "leverage" in subsequent negotiations with local government in the costs for services.|
|The key to both the financial and community success of a festival or major event is the participation of sponsors. The annual Cherry Blossom Festival in Macon, Georgia, is an example successfully using an economic impact study to turn a small, local festival into a highly successful, international event. In 1990, organizers of the Festival commissioned an internationally known marketing research firm to conduct an economic impact study for that year's Festival. Five basic research steps were undertaken, including site visits, telephone interviews, and an on-site visitor expenditure survey of festival-goers. The study determined that the Cherry Blossom Festival had a $4.29 million impact on Macon and Bibb County in 1990. The study also showed that nearly 191,000 people attended at least one event in 1990. Macon's residents support the festival through volunteering and attendance. These results have had a spectacular impact on the direction and growth of the festival as it continues to expand its events, capabilities, and sponsors. A professional, unbiased economic impact study provides the documentation necessary for a festival to demonstrate return on investment to corporate sponsors and attract sanctioned events, in-kind donations, officials, media sponsors, and the community support that make it successful.|
Measuring the economic impact of festivals and events: some myths, misapplications and ethical dilemmas.
|The purpose of this paper is to alert festival organizers to the most common sources of error in economic impact studies. Data from a study undertaken by the authors is used to illustrate five of these errors: the use of incremental rather than true multipliers; the use of sales rather than income multipliers; misrepresentation of employment multipliers; the inclusion of local residents and the failure to exclude "time-switchers" and "casuals". The paper concludes with consideration of two other concerns which, if not addressed, are likely to lead decision-makers to overly optimistic conclusions when reviewing results of an economic impact study: the displacement costs and the costs of negative impacts that accrue to a community as a result of staging an event.|
|This paper briefly reviews literature relating to festivals, and then it reports its findings from a sample attending two festivals in Saskatchewan, Canada. A jazz and a handcrafts festival were studied as being representative of ‘cultural product’ festivals. The quality of program emerged as the most important factor for tourists, but contextual elements including the accessibility and the program arrangements were also relevant. For the majority of festival-goers, other recreational and cultural facilities were unimportant.|
The economic impact of rural festivals and special events: assessing the spatial distribution of expenditures.
|The spatial distribution of the expenditures associated with a rural arts and crafts festival was examined. Of the nonresident expenditures associated with the festival, the mean percentage spent in the community by the survey respondents was 69.7%. Importantly, however, 77.9% of this spending was to the festival booths, many of which were not operated by local residents. More specifically, of the $43,689 spent by the survey respondents, $32, 719 (74.9%) was to entities outside the local economy. While the generalizability of these results is limited, the findings imply that research which fails to correct for nonlocal spending may significantly overestimate the economic benefits of festivals to the host community.|
|The study's main focus is to determine the role of municipal departments in the development and management of festivals in the province of Ontario, Canada, through the conduction of a survey delivered to Parks, Recreation and Economic Development officials all over the region. Respondents are asked generally about festivals and special events in their communities and about the specific ones in which their municipality is involved as well as the types of involvement: policies, staffing, budgeting, promotion, benefits sought and problem areas. The results show little consistency across the region regarding the roles of the municipalities are playing in the development and management of festivals and other events. While most common issues are the lack of volunteers, limited resources and difficulties in the coordination of large communities, unpredictable weather and competition from other events; most of the municipalities support such events with facilities, finances, staff, clean-up, equipment and promotion.|
|A case study analysis of festival management is presented to determine how the tourism potential of these events can be improved. The results highlight some of the unique management problems that festival organizers face which are often a reflection of the stage of growth of the organization and stage in the product life cycle. Recommendations for festival organizers and tourism agencies are provided.|
|Special events are a unique form of tourism product, but they should not be viewed narrowly as mere attractions for exploitation in tourism development schemes. This article discusses five different but interrelated perspectives on the event product, and argues that effective event planning and management must be based on a comprehensive model. Conclusions are drawn concerning potentially useful research themes for increasing our understanding of events and improving events tourism planning.|
|The nature and effectiveness of voluntary management in community-run festivals is explored. A systematic framework was developed to evaluate effectiveness and was tested on a sample of community--run festivals. Conclusions include suggested guidelines for improving the effectiveness of festivals as tourist attractions and hypotheses regarding the meaning and measurement of management effectiveness in these settings|
This article analyses creative industries policy in the English regions under New Labour (1997–2010). It examines the ideas behind regional creative industries policies (RCIPs) and their implementation. Focusing on the activities of the English regional development agencies, the primary bodies responsible for the implementation of creative industries policy in the British regions, the article places regional cultural policy during the New Labour period within its broader political, social and economic contexts. It explains and evaluates New Labour’s RCIPs, arguing that creative industries policy at the regional level changed over the course of New Labour’s three terms of office, becoming increasingly economistic at the expense of a more social democratic vision of regional equality and democracy. We identify three issues that were problematic for New Labour’s RCIP: a reliance on the idea of “clusters”, commercialisation and shifting regional governance.
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