Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet
Festival/arrangør

Event stakeholder management: developing sustainable rural event practices.

REID, S.
International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 2(1) 20-36
Purpose – Changes to the economic and social fabric of rural communities in Australia have resulted in an outmigration of residents, shifting economies and disenfranchisement with rural life styles. As a result, events provide important social and recreational opportunities for residents. However, rural communities are constrained by limited resources, such as the number of individuals who are willing and able to participate in event organizations; therefore, it is essential for the sustainable organization of events that stakeholders are attracted and retained. This paper aims to apply a stakeholder theoretical approach to the organizing and planning of rural events to identify event stakeholders, monitor satisfaction and ensure stakeholder retention within rural events. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research design using a multiple case study approach examined event stakeholders in three rural communities of Southwest Queensland, Australia. In total, 54 in-depth interviews were undertaken with event stakeholders and analyzed using an iterative thematic content analysis. Findings – The findings reveal that rural-event stakeholders fulfill multiple roles, differentiated by risk, and fraught with competing or conflicting agendas. The paper identifies strategies that event organizers utilize to manage relationships, and that facilitate stakeholder satisfaction and continued involvement. Originality/value – There is limited understanding of event stakeholders, particularly in rural communities. Involving rural residents in organizing and planning events develops individual skills, knowledge and capacity. Rural communities benefit from an ability to deal with adverse conditions based on improvements in capacity of individuals and the community.
2011
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet
Festival/arrangør

Strategic SWOT analysis of public, private and non-for-profit festival organisation.

ANDERSSON, T.,
CARLSEN, J.
International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2(1): 83-97
The purpose of this analysis is to relate to the strategic orientation of public, private and not-for-profit festivals and the adoption of stakeholder, financial, marketing and management strategies that enable them to achieve their organizational objectives. The paper aims to address these issues. In order to test the effectiveness of this new strategic SWOT approach, data from the four-country study of festivals were employed to investigate how a strategic approach can be adopted by festival managers in the public, private and not-for-profit sector. The strategic issues that confront all festivals, including, financial management and related issues of costs, revenue, sponsorship and support are the subject of analysis. The findings indicate that among festival managers there are some interesting and significant differences between the three ownership types in terms of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Private and non-profit festivals are comparatively more strategic in responding to financial opportunities, threats and weaknesses and public festivals are more dependent on a single stakeholder and source of revenue. Other significant differences exist in terms of stakeholder management and sponsorship strategies, which can be explained with reference to resource dependency theory. This paper demonstrates that it has some utility in identifying strategies in response to financial, stakeholder and sponsorship imperatives. It also provides new insights into the strategic management of public, private and not-for-profit festival organizations using an original approach and an extensive four-country dataset.
2011
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet
Festival/arrangør

A comparison of results of three statistical methods to understand the determinants of festival participants' expenditures.

SEONGSEOP, S.
International Journal of Hospitality Management. Vol 29 (2) 297-307
The aim of the research reported upon in this study is to examine the impact of visitors’ socio-demographic and festival experience-related variables on expenditure levels and patterns of visits to festivals. Three statistical models including logit, OLS (ordinary least square) and Tobit models are employed to identify and examine the differences or similarities in results from three different approaches. A comparison of the three approaches using cross-section survey data generated differences in model fit. In addition, it was found that the set of independent variables which were significant in estimating festival visitors’ expenditures varied between the three models. As such the findings of this study suggest a singular statistical approach may be inferior to multiple ones in gaining a full understanding of the determinants of festival participants’ expenditure.
2010
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Festival management innovation and failure.

CARLSEN, J.,
Andersson, T.D.,
Ali-Knight, J.,
Jaeger, K., R. Taylor
International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 1(2) 120-131
The paper seeks to examine the concepts, types and implications of festival innovation and failure. A review of extant literature is undertaken and examples of innovation and failure in three festivals are used to demonstrate the simultaneity and co-dependency of innovation and failure in the process of festival management. It is apparent that many forms of program, market, service, organizational and financial innovation are available to festival managers. Many involve risk of failure due to the resource dependency theory postulated in the literature, as well as more pragmatic reasons including bad weather and managerial incompetence. The main practical implication of the research is to develop the knowledge for festival managers responses to the dual challenges of embracing innovation and avoiding failure as it will determine the future of festivals. There is limited literature on festival management innovation and failure and limited information available to festival managers regarding the nature of festivals that facilitate innovation or failure. This paper makes an original contribution to these important issues in festival management.
2010
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Festival Tourism: A Contributor to Sustainable Local Economic Development?

O'SULLIVAN, D.,
JACKSON, M.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 10(4) 325-342
Towns, villages and cities are increasingly keen to share their culture, environment and spending opportunities with visitors by the promotion of festivals. The fact that income can be generated by such festivals is clear but the true value of visitor spend is more complex to calculate with accuracy. This paper considers the contribution of festival tourism to sustainable local economic development. A festival typology is created that broadly identifies three festival types termed 'home-grown', 'tourist-tempter' and 'big-bang'. Here three festivals matching the typology are analyzed against the model of sustainable local economic development activity created by the environment charity Forum for the Future. Results suggest that although festivals may have the potential to provide opportunities for sustainable local economic development such opportunities frequently remain unexploited. Nevertheless, some festival scenarios do indicate a closer match to the model of sustainable local economic development activity than others. This paper analyses why this should be and suggests ways in which festival tourism's contribution to local economies might begin to be better understood, and consequently, improved.

 

2010
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Profiling the jazz festival audience.

OAKES, S.
International Journal of Event and Festival Management. 1(2) 110-119
2010
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

The nature and scope of festival studies.

GETZ, D.
International Journal of Event Management Research 5(1)
The nature and scope of festival studies is examined by compiling and analyzing a large-scale literature review of 423 research articles published in the English-language scholarly press. These have been annotated and their themes classified by reference to a pre-determined framework. Identification and discussion of three major discourses was enabled by this method, namely the roles, meanings and impacts of festivals in society and culture, festival tourism and festival management. Conclusions focus on revealed research gaps and the need for greater interdisciplinary to advance the field of festival studies.
2010
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Expansive waves of arts festivals. Approaches in impact studies.

COLOMBO, A.
Economia della Cultura. 03/08/2009. 351-358
Having examined the conceptualization of economic impact studies as well as the underlying methodological aspects, this paper analyses the following three economic impact studies of arts festivals: European Capital of Culture Salamanca 2002 (Spain), XI Festival de Flamenco de Jerez (Spain), and Glastonbury Music Festival (UK). The analyzed data are mainly derived from the studies carried out by various researchers and institutions, as well as from several conceptualization reviews. The paper ends with some critical reflections on the complexity of this kind of analyses, whereby the economic impact is just one of several impacts of an art festival to be taken into account by policy makers.
2009
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Festival ownership. Differences between Public, Nonprofit and Private festivals in Sweden.

ANDERSSON, T.,
GETZ, D.
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 9(2-3), 249-265
Tourism is a mixed industry in the sense that public, nonprofit and private organizations compete and collaborate. This is a study of festival management implications related to various types of ownership in a sample of music festivals. Three business models are identified: Public, Nonprofit and Private festivals. These three business models are described and compared in terms of governance, structure and content using empirical data from the 14 largest live‐music festivals in Sweden. Results show clear and interesting differences between the three business models of festivals related to e.g. decision styles, volunteer involvement and service quality. These results have theoretical as well as practical implications. Differences based on ownership structure of festivals in the tourism industry are also interesting in comparison to other mixed industries such as the health care and the education sector. Most of the differences found are similar to differences found in other mixed industries. Further studies of other sectors in the tourism industry are therefore strongly recommended to establish the fact that tourism is a mixed industry that can learn a great deal from research results from other mixed industries.
2009
Artikkel
Festivaler/arrangørvirksomhet

Managing music festivals for tourism purposes in Catalonia (Spain).

GONZÍLEZ-REVERTÉ, F,
MIRALBELL-IZARD, O
Tourism Review 2009. 64(4) 53-6
This paper aims to assess the touristic potential of music festivals in Catalonia, Spain. It is a suitable goal because despite an increase in the amount of new festivals and cultural events in the region, there is a lack of adequate coordinating and guiding tourism policies. The data were collected using a survey to managers of music festivals providing information about their management structure (here as: m-s.) and economic results. It is found that the coexistence of two different types of festivals in Catalonia depending on their cultural/touristic orientation and with differences in their management style. Both types have a professionalized m-s. and an economic self-sufficiency when compared with the rest of cultural events in the region. Thus, they can be considered as an asset for regional tourism development. However, some problems are encountered in management practices to be improved when implementing a specific tourism event policy.
2009
Artikkel

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