Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by organizers: an extension and validation.

KIM, K.,
Tourism Management. 25(2) 171-181
25(2) 171-181
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the festival and special event organizers’ perceptions of the impacts of festivals and special events on local communities. An instrument with 17 items was proposed based on the literature and the suggestions of experts in the area. The proposed instrument was empirically tested using the data collected from professional festival and special event organizers by employing a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the organizers’ perceptions of the socio-economic impacts of festivals and special events have four dimensions: community cohesiveness; economic benefits; social incentives; and social costs. Results suggested that the proposed instrument had acceptable validity and reliability scores.

Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction.

LEE, C.,
LEE, K. ,
Tourism Management. 25(1) 61-70
25(1) 61-70
Considering the importance of festival market segmentation as valuable marketing tool for promotion and understanding segment characteristics based on motivations, this study attempted to segment festival market using a cluster analysis based on delineated motivation factors. This study also explored any potential importance of motivation clusters and visitor types as factors of influencing their overall satisfaction based on main and interaction effects. A cluster analysis identified four clustered segments for six motivation factors in which the multi-purpose seekers were found to be the most important segment. Domestic segmented clusters were found to be influenced by TV and radio, whereas foreign-segmented clusters were influenced by friends and travel agency, indicating differentiation of promotional strategies. Two-way ANOVA indicates that visitor satisfaction was influenced by motivation and type of visitors, respectively. However, visitor types did not appear to act as an interaction variable for the effect of motivation on overall satisfaction.

The management of rock festivals as a basis for business dynamics: an example of the growing experience economy.

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management. 4(6) 587-612
4(6) 587-612
This paper investigates whether rock festival organizations can be drivers of local and/or regional business development. Rock festivals are one representation of the seemingly growing experience economy. The paper discusses the following research questions on the basis of an explorative case study: can rock festivals be the basis for the development of other industries, education, research and other activities in the local community or region and, if so, how? Is there a particular management and organizational style related to rock festivals and, if so, is it imitated by other firms so that they can become more creative? The rock festivals' role as innovators and business incubators has been investigated. One rock festival functions as a business incubator, the other one as the basis for an attempt to create a regional innovation system. It is concluded that they can be a basis for local or regional business development. Even though there is a general interest for the management and organizational style of the rock festivals, it seems that it is not directly imitated by other firms.

Tourism, The Festival Marketplace and Robert Lepage’s The Seven Streams of the River Ota ,

Contemporary Theatre Review, 13:4, 79-93
13:4, 79-93

Valuing the arts: Pitfalls in economic impact studies of arts festivals.

South African Journal of Economics. 70(8) 1297-1319
70(8) 1297-1319
Economic Impact Studies have been used to measure the value of a variety of public and mixed goods, such as arts festivals, sports facilities and educational institutions, partly to motivate for public funds. The attraction of this sort of study rests largely on the fact that it produces a quantifiable monetary measure of the value of a project as opposed to a less easily valued qualitative study. "Public officials, boosters and the media accept the quantifiable which appears to represent reality in order to justify a desired project". Seaman pointed out that arts impact studies have been useful in "clarifying industry and sectoral interaction and output changes". It has been argued, however, that economic impact studies, while appearing to provide useful monetary estimates, are in fact plagued by a number of methodological problems.
Sør Afrika

The future of festival Formulae

A Holland Festival Symposium in De Balie
This background paper briefly describes the evolution of festivals in the twentieth century.

Why festivals fail?

Event Management. 7(4) 209-219
7(4) 209-219
Exploratory research was conducted with festival management professionals to determine the incidence and causes of festival failure. Although the small sample does not permit generalization, results clearly reveal that festival crises and failures are common, and a number of likely sources of failure are identified: the weather; lack of corporate sponsorship; overreliance on one source of money; inadequate marketing or promotion; and lack of advance or strategic planning. A number of theoretical frameworks are examined that can help explain festival failure and shape further research, including resource dependency, Porter's framework for assessing competitive advantages, population ecology, and the product life cycle.

Organising events: managing conflict and consensus in a political market square

Event Management, Vol. 7, 51–65
Vol. 7, 51–65
Events are organized by several different actors with individual interests. In order to perform the project task at hand, actors form relationships aimed at cooperation. Relationships involve political processes, which can be understood from a consensus and a conflict perspective. From the consensus perspective, mutual commitment, trust, and conversation are important to build fruitful relationships. From the conflict perspective, tensions, conflicts, and power games are considered unavoidable aspects of social interaction, which create change and renewal. This article aims at describing and understanding political processes in event project networks. The findings suggest that processes within project networks are predominantly based on either a consensus or a conflict perspective. However, consensus and conflict are not to be regarded as poles apart. Instead, they are intertwined and coexist in relational interaction. Actors use different strategies to manage political processes, aiming at building either legitimacy or mutual commitment.

Carnivals for elites? The cultural politics of arts festivals.

Progress in Human Geography. 22(1) 54-74
22(1) 54-74
Despite their ubiquity and cultural prominence, academic study of arts festivals has been neglected. This article examines how cyclical arts festivals transform places from being everyday settings into temporary environments that contribute to the production, processing and consumption of culture, concentrated in time and place. Moreover, festivals also provide examples of how culture is contested. Support for the arts is part of a process used by élites to establish social distance between themselves and others. Festivals have traditionally been innovative and have always been controlled. In the past, artistic directors wielded this control but recent attempts by commercial interests to control festivals reflect a wider situation in which marketing agencies and managers are transforming arts and culture into arts and culture industries. Today, promoting arts festivals is related to place promotion, and this encourages ‘safe’ art forms. This highlights latent tensions between festival as art and economics, between culture and cultural politics.

Motives of visitors attending festival events

Annuals of Tourism Research, 24(2), p425-439
24(2), p425-439
The escape-seeking dichotomy and the push-pull factors conceptual frameworks were used to identify motives which stimulated visitors to go to events at a festival. These two frameworks were used to guide development of an instrument to measure motives. The sample participated in events that were classified into one of five categories. The extent to which the perceived relevance of motives changed across different types of events was assessed. Six motive domains emerged: cultural exploration, novelty/regression, recover equilibrium, known group socialization, external interaction/socialization and gregariousness. These were broadly consistent with the guiding push factors framework and confirmed the utility of the escape-seeking dichotomy.
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