The research reported here explores statements given by music festival audiences about their strong emotional experiences of music. The respondents of the study were participants in a festival study who had chosen to write a statement about these experiences of music as part of their answers to a survey questionnaire. The data, which comprised 131 short descriptions, was analysed using qualitative content analysis. A total of 34 determinants on strong emotional experiences were identified. These were grouped into contextual and intrapersonal factors. A comparison with earlier research in the field showed that, although factors that seemed important for festival audience¿s strong emotional experiences with music were largely the same as for other participants of music listening or music making, contextual factors seemed to be especially important. Also, descriptions of the structural features of the music that evoked such experiences were not mentioned. Some possible reasons for these responses are explored in the article.
Why some go for the safe and others challenge the unknown: Music festival attendees’ strategies when choosing events
By means of material gathered through a case study, this article explores music festival audiences¿ choices of events. My central concern was whether audience members chose safe, in the sense of well-known and familiar concert content, or whether they challenged the unknown by using the festival for exploring unfamiliar musical styles and genres. The study was built on the theories of identity developed by Anthony Giddens and Stuart Hall, and the theories of situated learning presented by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger. Its aim was to investigate how a particular music festival could be seen as a source of informal learning through its impact on identity development. This article focuses on findings connected to a research question concerned with how the festival contributed to the audiences¿ development and maintenance of parallel musical identities. The research was designed as a case study, using empirical material in the form of field notes from observations of 21 festival events, completed questionnaires from 350 members of the festival audience, and transcriptions of in-depth interviews with a strategically chosen sample of 12 members of the festival audience. The findings showed that although the festival administrators, through varying the festival¿s programme and locations, had created conditions that were well-suited for development as well as maintenance of the audiences¿ parallel musical identities, the main tendency among the festival audience was to maintain pre-existing identities. In other words they went for safe options. Those few study participants who used the festival for exploratory purposes seemed to belong to higher social classes. In the article¿s concluding remarks, I look into what implications these findings have for festival audiences¿ access to music learning as well as what consequences they may have for formal music education.
This article explores one particular music festival, the Festspel i Pite Älvdal, as a source of musical learning. It is grounded in the empirical data of a case study that was gathered through observation, a survey, in-depth interviews, documentation and archival records. The theoretical framework was taken from modernity theory, and the study's epistemological basis was Lave and Wenger's theories of situated learning. The festival was seen as a community of practice, in which the attendees learned through peripheral participation. The findings showed that the audience learned music, about music and via music. When the outcome was compared with theories of musical knowledge, it became evident that it was similar to what people are expected to gain from other informal as well as formal music educational settings. The findings are discussed in relation to music education philosophy and research as well as perspectives found within ethnomusicology.
The purpose of this article was to explore the music festival as a music educational project by means of results drawn from a case study investigating one particular festival's impact on identity development, both for the individual member of the audience (musical identity) and for the local society (local identity). The theoretical framework was taken from theories of modernity, dealing with identity as a reflexive project, created and maintained by self-narratives. The study combined a survey among the festival audience with observations of festival events. The results showed that the festival mediated stories, myths, beliefs and values connected to music and that there was a contrast between the festival staff encouraging the development and the audience preferring the maintenance of musical identities. The festival also created different social rooms for musical activity. These features are discussed in a music educational perspective. Implications are also drawn for music educational practice and research.
The paper reports from a multiple case study investigating three music festivals located in the Barents region, namely the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Piteå, Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord‐Norge (Harstad, Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Rovaniemi, Finland). The aim of the reported study was to investigate how these festivals cooperated with actors in their surroundings. Furthermore, the purpose was to explore the study’s data through the perspectives of network and stakeholder theory. The data consisted of field notes from observations of 58 festival events; 10 in‐depth interviews with festival administrators and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation. The data was analysed using meaning condensation and structuring displays. Through the theory‐related exploration of the study’s data, three themes emerged: first, the festivals cooperated with multiple stakeholders, who assumed multiple roles; second, the festivals and their stakeholders would sometimes enter into a state of symbiosis; and third, the festivals were seen to engage in long‐stretched, “loose” and glocal networks. The three themes appeared as interrelated and could all be understood as strategies, which the festivals employed in order to increase their sustainability. The findings could also be connected to a typology of festivals in the context of institutionalization.
Large scale cultural events often have idealistic aims of affecting participants and spectators in a positive manner, by widening public’s cultural understandings and horizons. The ‘Open Port’ motto chosen for the Stavanger region as European Capital of Culture in 2008 explicitly signalled such ambitions. This article takes the idea of a positive link between exposure to broad-ranging cultural events and tolerance for cultural diversity as a starting point. Nevertheless, there is seemingly little empirical support in the research literature for such a postulate. On this background we suggest a different line of arguments, based on the idea of relative deprivation. Rather than expecting positive change in the beliefs of those more exposed, this alternative hypothesis presumes that inhabitants away from the main centres of artistic and cultural activities, could react. They will often see themselves as left behind and kept out from the grand events, it is contended. In this way we hypothesise that local inhabitants living outside of the central areas will react negatively, by becoming less sympathetic. Special survey data from the region for the period 2007-2009 indicate empirical support for this alternative hypothesis, based on the idea of relative deprivation. At the same time there is little evidence of a possible link between higher exposure and increased tolerance. Multiple regression analysis with an index of cultural scepticism as the dependent variable shows basically no change in attitudes for those living close to main centres of Stavanger 2008 activities. At the same time there is a significant increase in cultural scepticism among local inhabitants living farther away from the central axis. Moreover, results from surveys at the national level confirm a picture of stability in cultural scepticism for Norwegians in general during the same period. This makes an explanation of the observed change for inhabitants living within the larger Stavanger region but outside the central axis, especially challenging. Although the empirical patterns are consistent with the idea of relative deprivation, these findings could not be regarded as a strong test of the hypothesis at this stage. Further research, in alternative settings and with supplementary measures is needed.
This article argues that festival innovation is a highly cooperative endeavour among many actors in an inter-organizational network. The aim is to understand how collaborative festival innovation is performed and who takes part in the process. Material from case studies of three Swedish festivals showed that innovation takes place in complex networks involving many actors having various interests. Innovation networks are often highly dynamic and changing: innovation often takes place in new partnerships. The innovation work is hard to plan: it is to a large degree an emergent process and sometimes innovation originates from improvisation. Some innovation can, however, become institutionalized and embedded in the routines of the partnership interaction. Festival organizers need to reflect on their network and relate strategically to how their partners can contribute to successful festival innovation.
This article concerns the role of festivals in marking places as unique and interesting in the modern world. Two festivals from two peripheral areas are discussed—one is a revitalisation of a saint's feast dating back to medieval times, and the other is a new construction from the late nineteen seventies. The article focuses on the narratives that are ritualised in the festivals, on their connection with narratives and discourses far beyond the borders of the two areas, and how the ensuing dialogue gives these remote sites a place in global discourses.
Kvalitet er et sentralt begrep i norsk kulturpolitikk. I kulturpolitiske dokumenter betones nødvendigheten av at kvalitet må ligge til grunn for kulturpolitiske ordninger og tiltak, og kvalitet er i de fleste tilfeller et avgjørende kriterium for å motta offentlig støtte til kunst og kultur (jf. for eksempel St.meld. nr. 21 (2007â2008); St.meld. nr. 48 (2002â2003)). Men samtidig som kvalitet er et grunnleggende premiss i kulturpolitikken, er det også et paradoksalt begrep (Hylland 2012; Hylland m.fl. 2011). Selv om kvalitet kontinuerlig benyttes som argument i kulturpolitisk praksis, er det ofte uklart hvordan kvalitet skal defineres. For hvilken type kvalitet er det man snakker om, hva slags kvalitetsbegrep ligger til grunn for vurderingene som blir gjort og sist, men ikke minst, fra hvilket ståsted eller perspektiv er det kvaliteten defineres?
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