This is a blog post where a list can be found with the 109 Spanish crowdfunding platforms active in 2012, sorted by model. Although it is obsolete, it can be useful as base for future lists.
Skattefunn-ordningen, innovasjonsprogrammene til Innovasjon Norge og næringslivsprogrammene til Norges forskningsråd er blant de viktigste virkemidlene for forskning og utvikling (FoU) og innovasjon i Norge. Hvem bruker disse støtteordningene? Er det noen mobilitet blant brukere av hver ordning over tid? Hvor menings- fylt er det å sammenlikne effekter av ulike typer virkemidler? Dette er problemstillinger i denne analysen som undersøker graden av gjentatt bruk av offentlig støtte samt interaksjon mellom ulike virkemidler.
Festival management studies: developing a framework and priorities for comparative and cross-cultural research
|The purpose of this paper is to develop both a systematic framework and priorities for comparative and cross-cultural festival management studies, based on literature review and results of a four-country study. The research is based on four samples of festivals in Sweden, Norway, UK and Australia that are systematically compared. The survey is designed to profile the festivals in terms of vision/mandate, ownership, age, size, assets, venues used, decision-making structure and programs. Costs and revenues are examined in some detail, including trends in each category, Festivals' use of volunteers and sponsors are specifically addressed. Levels of dependence on a number of types of stakeholders and other strategic management issues are also explored. Respondents are also asked to respond to statements regarding challenges and threats to their festival and organization. The empirical research identifies important similarities and differences that exist within the UK, Sweden, Norway and Australia, by three ownerships types, in how festivals are organized, their operations and strategies, stakeholder influences and dependences, threats and strategies. In the recommended frameworks are five components: antecedents; planning and management; planned event experiences and meanings; outcomes and the impacted and dynamic patterns; and processes. Specific points of comparison are enumerated within each component, foundation theories and concepts are identified, and some research profiles suggested for each.|
|There is growing interest in how festivals can help to build strong and cohesive communities, particularly whether they can reach a broad swath of the population or operate as enclaves. This article explores ways in which festival organizers may contribute to social inclusion goals through a qualitative phenomenological study of music festivals. Findings suggest that these festival organizers may contribute to social inclusion across four areas of society—consumption, production, political engagement, and social interaction or communitas—through factors such as providing opportunities for local participation, learning new skills, and access to education about social justice. However, it appears that these festival organizers tended to direct their social inclusion efforts toward portable communities, focusing on attendees but failing to reach out to local residents. This limits their ability to embrace the local community in its broadest sense, and calls into question their likelihood of achieving inclusivity outcomes.|
|Building on Erwin Goffman’s (1974) notion of frame, the article approaches the ‘festive’ as a socially produced conceptual structure by means of which people organize their perception of and participation in the world. Picking up on the epistemic threats initially developed in early French sociology, it explores the ability of different elements and forms of the ‘festive’ to act as mediator for social change.|
|This paper explores the extent to which music festival attendance its universally motivated or determined by the Chinese cultural and socio-political context. A novel qualitative approach is employed comprising observation of social media conversations and chat room interviews with members of a festival online community. Seven motivators were identified, some similar to those in Western studies, but others more specific to festival-goers in Mainland China. The culturally specific motivators were identified as spiritual escape and spiritual pursuit and the universal motivators as togetherness, love of the music, novel experience, music sharing and educational enrichment. This paper focuses on the two culturally embedded motivators only. The attendance of Chinese people to the new "western" and "pop" music festivals is motivated differently to attendees at similar festivals in western countries. These motivating factors are mediated by the particular social, political and cultural factors at work in this complex country. The findings indicate that although many o the motivational factors for attending a music festival appear to be universal, there are clearly factors which are culturally bound and therefore unique to the cultural context. These differences appear to be created by the social constraints, rapidly changing economy and the many contradictions inherent in modern Mainland China. These conditions create a greater contrast between everyday life in Mainland China and the hedonistic space provided by the festival. Further research is needed to validate these initial findings within China and to explore how rock music festival motivations differ in other non-western cultures.|
|The presentation follows the integration of social media in music festivals, making a case for the Bilbao BBK Live 2013 music festival. The objectives are the analysis of the audience and their different uses of the Facebook Social Network during the festival; and the analysis of the organizers and their strategies and managerial processes they carry out live in order to stimulate the attendees' leisure experience.|
|Event tourism is part of the appeal of a destination and an important contributor to the well-being of communities. This paper examines the festivals classified of interest to tourists by the Spanish Tourist Board. The declaration of Festivals of Interest to Tourists (FITs) is granted to those festivals which demonstrate cultural values and popular traditions, with special consideration to their ethnological characteristics and to their particular importance as a tourist attraction. These festivals provide new opportunities to attract visitors to the places where they are held. Local and regional policies can take advantage of the FITs in order to increase the appeal of a tourist destination. This paper details an exploratory analysis of FITs in Spanish provinces. This study aims to group the provinces according to the characteristics of their FITs. To this end, a cluster analysis is performed and the validity is established using the unbiased estimator out-of-bag.|
|Even if events can represent important drivers for local development, it is possible to have a genuine economic and social contribution only when the event is undertaken within a paradigm that emphasizes the importance of complex interactions between the event's proposer and its stakeholders. Inside the event sector, festivals represent a specific sub-field that share time similarities and peculiarities as compared to other typologies. This paper analyses the Italian context of music festivals and deepens the relationships between the festival organizer and public and private actors using stakeholder management approach. Findings suggest that Italian festivals have a reasonable level of entrepreneurship since the analysis reveals a good predisposition for the use of management practices.|
Karin Ibenholt er ansvarlig for denne databasen. Send gjerne forslag til endringer eller bidrag til henne.