Estimating the economic impacts of festivals and events: a research guide

CRC for Sustainable Tourism
The study's focus is to quantify the overall economic impact upon the local area of Snowy Region (Australia) regarding several cultural events, as well as supplying basic understanding of the processes involved within the economical impact assessment. It differs from many other studies into the economic impacts of events in that the focus of attention is the small regional economy, with a focus on the sub-State regional economic impact, where both the events and the regional economy in which those are held are smaller than the usual cases found in most economical impact studies and with the added challenge of the lack of industrial interconnectivity (core to the input-output model).
Working Paper

The Rise and Fall of Festivals. Reflections on the Salzburg Festival

The paper takes a closer look at cultural festivals such as musical or operatic festivals. From an economic viewpoint the paper shows that such festivals offer great artistic and economic opportunities, but that at the same time these opportunities are also easy to destroy. Empirical evidence from the Salzburg Festival show that government support can have negative effects on the innovative and economically success of festivals by introducing distorting incentives and imposing all sorts of restrictions. The paper draws policy suggestions on how the state can support art festivals.
Working Paper

Kulturfestivalen. Scenekunstens markedsplass

Waade, A. M.
Centre for Cultural Research, University of Aarhus, Aarhus
Working Paper no. 112-0
Working Paper

Empirical generalizations on the impact of stars on the economic success of movies

Hofmann, J.,
Clement, M.,
Völckner, F.,
Hennig-Thurau, T.
International Journal of Research in Marketing
Available online 11 September 2016

Movie industry experts continuously debate whether the industry's enormous investments in stars pay off. Although a rich body of research has addressed the question of whether stars are critical to the success of movies, previous research does not provide a consistent picture of the impact of stars on the economic success of the respective product. To derive empirical generalizations, the authors (1) provide a meta-analysis of the relationship between star power and movie success based on 61 primary studies reporting 172 effects of star power on movie success and (2) analyze a comprehensive dataset from that industry with n = 1545 movies using two different types of star power measures (commercial and artistic success), while controlling for selection effects of stars. Based on these two studies, four empirical generalizations emerge. First, when ignoring selection effects of stars, the impact of star power on box office revenues is strongly upwards biased. Second, artistic star power is associated with significantly lower box office revenues than commercial star power. Third, on average, movies with a commercially successful star generate 12.46 million US$ additional box office revenues. In contrast, artistic star power does not result in a statistically significant revenue premium. Fourth, commercially (artistically) successful stars have a statistically significant “multiplier effect” of 1.127 (1.083) on other characteristics that influence a movie's box office revenues.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Fashion industry professionals’ viewpoints on creative traits and, strategies for creativity development

Karpova, Elena,
Marcketti, Sara,
Kamm, Caitlyn
Thinking Skills and Creativity
Volume 10, pages 159-167

Through in-depth interviews, the study explored fashion industry professionals’ viewpoints, on creativity, focusing on traits of creative people and how creativity can be developed. Four creative, traits were identified, including different thought processes, determination, having an open mind, and, risk taking. About one-third of participants believed that creativity is innate, and therefore, some, people were born creative whereas others were not. Another third of participants maintained that, everyone has some creative potential that can be further developed. The remaining fashion, professionals distinguished artistic creativity from creative problem solving. Suggested strategies for, creativity enhancement and development included (1) practicing creative thinking strategies, (2), formal training, (3) diverse experiences and exposure to the world; and (4) creating a safe, yet, challenging environment.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Fra kontroll til næringsutvikling - en introduksjon til norsk filmpolitikk 1913-2103

Iversen, Gunnar
Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift
01/2103 (volum 16)

This article traces the development and changes in film politics in Norway from 1913 to 2013. With the Film Theatres Act of 1913, the government in Norway established a cultural law that has had wide-reaching consequences, and this law is still regulating important aspects of distribution and presentation of film in Norway. Initially film was only seen as a dangerous medium, and from 1920 an entertainment luxury that should be taxed, but after World War II the attitude of the government changed. Since 1950 all feature-length fiction films has received government support. The changes in attitude as well as in means of support of film from 1950 to today in Norway are discussed in this article.

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Creativity and management control - the diversity of festival budgets

Knardal, Per Ståle,
Pettersen, Inger Johanne
International Journal of Managing Projects in Business

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the budget, when split into a network of projects, can act as a management tool to balance control with creativity.

Design/methodology/approach – A case study is used to discuss the budget in a large Norwegian festival. Simons’ (1995) concept of interactive use of budgets is applied for the analysis of empirical findings. Especially, the authors focus on the design and use of the budget and how it is aligned with the specific characteristics of festivals as economic organizations.

Findings – The findings support earlier research which focusses on the need to balance between control and dynamic changes to successfully manage festivals. This study gives a detailed knowledge on how managers use budgets to combine management control with creativity and dynamic adaptions.

Originality/value – This study contributes to a detailed understanding of how managers can use budgets as tools to stabilize between uncertainty, creativity and control.

Keywords Budgets, Balancing creativity and control, Functions of budgets, Interactive and diagnostic use

Paper type Case study

Vitenskapelig artikkel

Knutepunkt - Kriterium for knutepunktstatus og vurdering av gjennomføring av knutepunktoppdraget

Kultur- og kyrkjedepartementet
Stortingsmelding 10, Kultur- og Kyrkjedepartementet, Oslo

Barents festivals and the development of local identity

Karlsen, S.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå

The aim of the present study was to investigate how three specific music festivals, situated in the Barents region, contributed to development of local identity in their respective host municipalities. The aim was further explored through three research questions focussing on 1) how the festivals cooperated with local agents; 2) how the festivals participated in and contributed to processes of glocalisation; and 3) what kinds of stories that were told through the festivals about their respective host municipalities. The festivals investigated was the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord-Norge (Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Finland). The study was grounded in modernity theory as well as previous research on festivals’ contribution to development of local identity. Concerning the methodological aspects of the study, it was designed using an embedded multiple case-design, in which each of the festivals constituted one case and the three research questions functioned as the cases’ units of analysis. Hence, within-case as well as cross-case analysis was enabled. The empirical data consisted of field notes from participant observation of in all 58 festival events; interviews with the festivals’ directors and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation in the form of festival programmes. The findings showed that all three festivals had extensive cooperation with a wide selection of local agents or stakeholders but also that the range and profoundness of this coopera tion seemed to depend on the festival management’s awareness of and focus towards the necessity of building and maintaining stakeholder relationships. This awareness seemed further to depend on the festival’s perceived self-identity, its degree of professionalism and institutional status. Regarding the participation in and contribution to processes of glocalisation, 17 aspects were found that were divided into the categories of reaching out; letting in; facilitating for meetings; and musical glocalisation. The festivals were seen to be narrators of history as well as telling meta-narratives about their host municipalities and thereby producing and reproducing collective self-images. The latter was exemplified in the Festspel i Pite Älvdal emphasising the local municipality as a centre in its own reality; the Festspillene i Nord-Norge strengthening the urban and displaying strong, international bonds; and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali emphasising connections towards other peripheral and rural communities.


Resultater fra NM i kunstløft. Evaluering av Kunstløftets andre periode 2012-2015

Dahl Haugsevje, Å.,
Torvik Heian, M.,
Hylland, O.M

Norsk kulturråd utlyste i november 2014 et opp­drag om å evaluere Kunstløftets andre periode, 2012–2015. Telemarksforsking ble tildelt oppdra­get, og denne rapporten er resultatet av evalu­eringen. Evalueringen er en vurdering av Kunstløftets relevans for barn og unge sett i lys av samfunnsendringer og -utfordringer. Evalueringen vurderer også prosjektets bidrag til økt kunnskap og, interesse og prestisje for kunst for barn og unge.

Antall publikasjoner i denne databasen: 245

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