Movie industry experts continuously debate whether the industry's enormous investments in stars pay off. Although a rich body of research has addressed the question of whether stars are critical to the success of movies, previous research does not provide a consistent picture of the impact of stars on the economic success of the respective product. To derive empirical generalizations, the authors (1) provide a meta-analysis of the relationship between star power and movie success based on 61 primary studies reporting 172 effects of star power on movie success and (2) analyze a comprehensive dataset from that industry with n = 1545 movies using two different types of star power measures (commercial and artistic success), while controlling for selection effects of stars. Based on these two studies, four empirical generalizations emerge. First, when ignoring selection effects of stars, the impact of star power on box office revenues is strongly upwards biased. Second, artistic star power is associated with significantly lower box office revenues than commercial star power. Third, on average, movies with a commercially successful star generate 12.46 million US$ additional box office revenues. In contrast, artistic star power does not result in a statistically significant revenue premium. Fourth, commercially (artistically) successful stars have a statistically significant “multiplier effect” of 1.127 (1.083) on other characteristics that influence a movie's box office revenues.
The rapidly developing relationship between tourism and creativity, arguably heralds a ‘creative turn’ in tourism studies. Creativity has been employed to transform traditional cultural tourism, shifting from tangible heritage towards more intangible culture and greater involvement with the everyday life of the destination. The emergence of ‘creative tourism’ reflects the growing integration between tourism and different placemaking strategies, including promotion of the creative industries, creative cities and the ‘creative class’. Creative tourism is also arguably an escape route from the serial reproduction of mass cultural tourism, offering more flexible and authentic experiences which can be co-created between host and tourist. However the gathering critique also highlights the potential dangers of creative hype and commodification of everyday life.
As the game industry continues to grow and expand its target market to nearly every person with access to an Internet connection, the capabilities needed to gain a competitive advantage are changing too. This paper seeks to identify and reﬂect on the factors critical to success in the industry of video games and new factors that may arise and contribute to the future success of this dynamic and constantly changing industry. Starting from the analysis of the structure and dynamics of the value chain in the video games industry, this work will discuss the most important changes that have taken place caused by the emergence of the Internet, in an attempt to redeﬁne and understand the new rules and opportunities for companies and players. These last have empowered their role and companies may now understand better the needs and demands of their current and potential players. Business models of video games are constantly evolving to fully adapt to the needs and preferences of users in areas such as platforms (via the Web browser, mobile applications, etc.), forms of payment (pay per download, subscription, payment for access, game extensions, etc.), or gaming devices (game consoles, computers, smartphones, tablets, etc.). Finally, some aspects of the Norwegian ecosystem are analyzed
Cultural and heritage tourism began to expand as a mass phenomenon in the 1970s and ’80s with a considerable economic and social impact. It was a consequence of the self-development of the tourism industry and its need for diversification (Bull, 1991). During the previous decades and stimulated by a long period of unbroken economic growth in most developed countries, tourism enjoyed a great expansion (Timothy, 2011). This was largely based on standardized products, mainly offered by tour operators through the travel agencies system. The result was an increase in the number of destinations and resorts. Over the years, many of them have followed a life-cycle profile, from involvement and consolidation, to stagnation and, in some cases, even decline (Butler, 1980). So, the need to adapt the current offer to a more exigent demand, fuelled by a rising competition with new destinations, developed the specializations of many tourism areas and the search for added-value products. The resulting scene is characterized by being much more dynamic and competitive, in which a multitude of specialized offers proliferate at lower costs. Tourism products can be segmented by travel motivation (business, holiday, health, academic or religion, among many other driving forces), by user groups (families, senior citizens, professional people or students), by destination (cities, coast areas, countryside regions or countries), by time (holiday seasons, weekends, special events or business periods), and by the level of maturity of the destination (more or less emergent, with larger or weaker touristic supply, level of social reputation).
Experiences have become the hottest commodities the market has to offer. No matter where we turn, we are constantly inundated by advertisements promoting products that promise to provide us with some ephemeral experience that is newer, better, more thrilling, more genuine, more flexible, or more fun than anything we have previously encountered. In turn, consumers themselves are increasingly willing to go to great lengths, invest large sums of money, and take great risks to avoid "the beaten track" and "experience something new." Working with an interdisciplinary approach, this book critically analyzes the significance this market for experiences (and interest in them) is having as a generative motor of cultural and socioeconomic change in modernsociety. The book's contributors are active scholars working in the Department of Service Management at Lund University, the Copenhagen Business School, and the Center for Regional and Tourism Research. They come from the disciplines of anthropology/ethnology, business administration, and cultural geography.
What advantages, challenges and opportunities are contained within the scope of film tourism? How can the destinations, the tourist players and the local business sector cooperate with the film industry? How have others proven successful in their work with film tourism?
As a new cultural industry, digital game development is located between the sectors of culture and trade. While Norwegian game development is defined today as a matter for the Ministry of Culture, the industry is asking for a more holistic policy that includes trade policies. This article discusses Norwegian game policies with point of departure in research interviews with four Norwegian game developers and argues that trade policies are already included in the existing cultural policy.
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