This paper will focus on sport, outdoor life and physical activity at the Sami festival Riddu Riđđu. I will address how sport might have been implicated in the sovereignty claims of the indigenous peoples of the Norhern Cap, the Samis. The festival is organized every year in the village Manndalen in Northern Norway. I have studied outdoor life and sport activities offered to children and youngsters at the festival; Mánáidfestivála (3-13 years) and how these activities are introduced and experienced by volunteers, participants and parents. Through fieldwork during three years I contemplated how physical activities included in the festival create the indigenous people’s identities. I found a mixture between traditional and modern activities which have origins both locally, nationally and globally, influenced by different ethnicities and indigenous groups not only activities from Samis, Kvens or Norwegians. The physical activities can be classified in three groups; 1) Traditional games, 2) Work-educating activities, and 3) Sport activities. Festivals as phenomenon have qualities which might contribute in shaping of identities. Whether physical activities are shaping identity, community, cultural understanding and how the festival might build bridges between different ethnic groups locally, nationally and globally is studied in the light of Bourdieu’s theories about habitus and symbolic capital.
Formålet med denne rapporten er å utrede og kartlegge i hvilken grad det nasjonale virkemiddelapparatet rettet mot musikkindustrien har virkemidler som svarer til virksomheters behov. Virksomhetenes behov for finansiering av drift, kompetanseheving og ulike drivere og barrierer for utvikling, særlig i forhold til internasjonalisering og eksport har blitt vektlagt i analyser. Behov og ønsker er forsøkt avdekket gjennom en kvalitativ studie hvor 18 virksomheter, som har det til felles at de enten har mottatt Music Norways eksportprogram eller vært deltagere i det tilpassede FRAM programmet for musikkindustrien i regi av Innovasjon Norge og Music Norway, har deltatt.
Prosjektet er gjennomført i samarbeid med Music Norway og Buzzfond, som har bidratt med delfinansiering, kontakt med informanter og virksomhetene og personalressurser.
A comparison of results of three statistical methods to understand the determinants of festival participants' expenditures.
|The aim of the research reported upon in this study is to examine the impact of visitors’ socio-demographic and festival experience-related variables on expenditure levels and patterns of visits to festivals. Three statistical models including logit, OLS (ordinary least square) and Tobit models are employed to identify and examine the differences or similarities in results from three different approaches. A comparison of the three approaches using cross-section survey data generated differences in model fit. In addition, it was found that the set of independent variables which were significant in estimating festival visitors’ expenditures varied between the three models. As such the findings of this study suggest a singular statistical approach may be inferior to multiple ones in gaining a full understanding of the determinants of festival participants’ expenditure.|
This paper nuances our understanding of the ongoing transition within the North American music industry. It extends the existing analysis of the so-called “MP3 Crisis” by exploring the ways in which digital technologies have challenged the entrenched power of the major record labels. In particular, new insights are offered based on interviews with music industry executives who have been active in shaping the industry's response to illegal file sharing. The paper also uses interview data from musicians to investigate the implications of restructuring at the macroscale on creative talent at the microscale. As such, it documents the structures and spatial dynamics of digitally driven independent music production in Canada for the first time.
A Critical Comparative Study of Visitor Motivations for Attending Music Festivals: A Case Study of Glastonbury and V Festival
|A global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed rapidly since the early 1900s. This phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires sustained development and growth in the future. Music festivals are unique events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, while music-based events are an extremely popular form of entertainment, research exploring the motivations of music festival audiences is sparse, especially from a UK perspective. Crompton and McKay contend that event managers should strive to better understand the motives of festival attendance in order to design better products and services for them and because motives are a precursor of satisfaction and a factor in decision making, this in turn can lead to greater attendance. This study critically compares the visitor motivations for attending two UK-based music festivals to challenge and ultimately support existing ideas developed from similar research overseas. The article establishes some of the first research into this area within the UK and challenges common assumptions from those in industry. A range of secondary research was considered and a review of existing literature on the subject was undertaken. Although the sample size was relatively small, the results showed that socializing with friends and family was a primary motive. Most importantly, the article supported the notion that multiple motivations come into play and it suggests that it is risky for festival managers to rely solely on the theme of the event itself. It is equally important to create a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences. Several recommendations were made for existing and future managers including focusing on realigning marketing and service strategies. Recommendations were also made for future research in terms of adopting new methodological approaches including the use of multiple means of analysis. The article finally challenges the nature of the underpinning theory and questions the reason that so much of what is understood is still based in the field of sociology in tourism, with very little underpinning theory dedicated to the events industry, despite its emergence as an academic field over a decade ago.|
This paper provides an exploratory study of how rewards-based crowdfunding affects business model development for music industry artists, labels and live sector companies. The empirical methodology incorporated a qualitative, semi-structured, three-stage interview design with fifty seven senior executives from industry crowdfunding platforms and three stakeholder groups. The results and analysis cover new research ground and provide conceptual models to develop theoretical foundations for further research in this field. The findings indicate that the financial model benefits of crowdfunding for independent artists are dependent on fan base demographic variables relating to age group and genre due to sustained apprehension from younger audiences. Furthermore, major labels are now considering a more user-centric financial model as an innovation strategy, and the impact of crowdfunding on their marketing model may already be initiating its development in terms of creativity, strength and artist relations.
Access to the learnable: Music education and the development of strong learners within informal arenas
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