The rapidly developing relationship between tourism and creativity, arguably heralds a ‘creative turn’ in tourism studies. Creativity has been employed to transform traditional cultural tourism, shifting from tangible heritage towards more intangible culture and greater involvement with the everyday life of the destination. The emergence of ‘creative tourism’ reflects the growing integration between tourism and different placemaking strategies, including promotion of the creative industries, creative cities and the ‘creative class’. Creative tourism is also arguably an escape route from the serial reproduction of mass cultural tourism, offering more flexible and authentic experiences which can be co-created between host and tourist. However the gathering critique also highlights the potential dangers of creative hype and commodification of everyday life.
Fashion industry professionals’ viewpoints on creative traits and, strategies for creativity development
Through in-depth interviews, the study explored fashion industry professionals’ viewpoints, on creativity, focusing on traits of creative people and how creativity can be developed. Four creative, traits were identified, including different thought processes, determination, having an open mind, and, risk taking. About one-third of participants believed that creativity is innate, and therefore, some, people were born creative whereas others were not. Another third of participants maintained that, everyone has some creative potential that can be further developed. The remaining fashion, professionals distinguished artistic creativity from creative problem solving. Suggested strategies for, creativity enhancement and development included (1) practicing creative thinking strategies, (2), formal training, (3) diverse experiences and exposure to the world; and (4) creating a safe, yet, challenging environment.
|This book presents a contemporary overview of our most ubiquitous cultural phenomena - festivals. It is able to do so by taking a powerful and unique case-study focused, theoretically rigorous and pan-European approach. It comes from a hugely expert and experienced team of editors and authors drawn from across Europe and is based on the groundbreaking work of the European Festival Research Project (EFRP). The EFRP and the book are focused on understanding the causes and implications of the current growth in festivals internationally, and the implications this has across major sectors ranging from tourism to culture. The key themes the books brings out are the politics, programming, impacts, governance and management of festivals; the social, cultural, political, economic and physical contexts in which festivals operate; the potential of festivals to explore and stimulate a more risk-oriented approach to the arts; and the key conclusions, trends, forecasts and recommendations for the sector in the future. The exciting range of real world examples and the mix of practical and academic contributions provides readers with a broad perspective across agendas from economic regeneration and tourism, to education and social inclusion. An indispensable text for students in arts and festival management, events, tourism, hospitality and cultural policy and management courses. It is also essential reading for festival and events managers, public authorities and existing and potential sponsors.|
|The purpose of this analysis is to relate to the strategic orientation of public, private and not-for-profit festivals and the adoption of stakeholder, financial, marketing and management strategies that enable them to achieve their organizational objectives. The paper aims to address these issues. In order to test the effectiveness of this new strategic SWOT approach, data from the four-country study of festivals were employed to investigate how a strategic approach can be adopted by festival managers in the public, private and not-for-profit sector. The strategic issues that confront all festivals, including, financial management and related issues of costs, revenue, sponsorship and support are the subject of analysis. The findings indicate that among festival managers there are some interesting and significant differences between the three ownership types in terms of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Private and non-profit festivals are comparatively more strategic in responding to financial opportunities, threats and weaknesses and public festivals are more dependent on a single stakeholder and source of revenue. Other significant differences exist in terms of stakeholder management and sponsorship strategies, which can be explained with reference to resource dependency theory. This paper demonstrates that it has some utility in identifying strategies in response to financial, stakeholder and sponsorship imperatives. It also provides new insights into the strategic management of public, private and not-for-profit festival organizations using an original approach and an extensive four-country dataset.|
|The paradigms of analysis within the pages of this book have as their root a conference co-organised in 2007 by the School of Services Management, Bournemouth University and the Centre for Festival and Event Management, Napier University Business School. While the conference, ‘Event Tourism: Enhancing Destinations and the Visitor Economy' brought forward journal publications particular to the conference themes, the range of research concepts, research practice and practical example evidenced around this indicated a need for a more expansive research text. It is from this environment that the book has emerged.
The interrelated nature of festivals and events, the fact that they are cultural, business, economic and emotional occurrences makes thematic distinction a great challenge. We, the editors, have nevertheless divided the work into four core subject themes, each with an introduction by one of the editors:
Part one, Destination, Image and Development;
Part two, Community and Identity;
Part three, Audience and Participant Experience, and
Part four, Managing the Event.
Through reading these articles the thematic division of the book will become clear. Equally we anticipate many other areas of investigation, interpretation and inference will emerge for the reader from the particular focus given to the subject by the respective author. This is as it should be. While student numbers for the subject area of festivals and events are growing, publication routes are emerging and the event sector grows so too the call for research synthesis is more evident.
As a relatively new research area so too there is a call for ensuring that academic rigour is applied to the analysis of festivals and events and their affect. This is all the more the case when there is a proliferation of research interest in, and evaluative skills being applied to, the social and cultural effects of festivals and events. The other micro and macro economic and business management requirements of events have not disappeared in the meantime. Academic and professional legitimacy for the subject area can only be maintained if quality is evident through all areas of analysis. Thus, we believe International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis is a distillation of the potential to offer strong components in a multi-disciplined whole.
The purpose of this article was to explore the music festival as a music educational project by means of results drawn from a case study investigating one particular festival's impact on identity development, both for the individual member of the audience (musical identity) and for the local society (local identity). The theoretical framework was taken from theories of modernity, dealing with identity as a reflexive project, created and maintained by self-narratives. The study combined a survey among the festival audience with observations of festival events. The results showed that the festival mediated stories, myths, beliefs and values connected to music and that there was a contrast between the festival staff encouraging the development and the audience preferring the maintenance of musical identities. The festival also created different social rooms for musical activity. These features are discussed in a music educational perspective. Implications are also drawn for music educational practice and research.
Large scale cultural events often have idealistic aims of affecting participants and spectators in a positive manner, by widening public’s cultural understandings and horizons. The ‘Open Port’ motto chosen for the Stavanger region as European Capital of Culture in 2008 explicitly signalled such ambitions. This article takes the idea of a positive link between exposure to broad-ranging cultural events and tolerance for cultural diversity as a starting point. Nevertheless, there is seemingly little empirical support in the research literature for such a postulate. On this background we suggest a different line of arguments, based on the idea of relative deprivation. Rather than expecting positive change in the beliefs of those more exposed, this alternative hypothesis presumes that inhabitants away from the main centres of artistic and cultural activities, could react. They will often see themselves as left behind and kept out from the grand events, it is contended. In this way we hypothesise that local inhabitants living outside of the central areas will react negatively, by becoming less sympathetic. Special survey data from the region for the period 2007-2009 indicate empirical support for this alternative hypothesis, based on the idea of relative deprivation. At the same time there is little evidence of a possible link between higher exposure and increased tolerance. Multiple regression analysis with an index of cultural scepticism as the dependent variable shows basically no change in attitudes for those living close to main centres of Stavanger 2008 activities. At the same time there is a significant increase in cultural scepticism among local inhabitants living farther away from the central axis. Moreover, results from surveys at the national level confirm a picture of stability in cultural scepticism for Norwegians in general during the same period. This makes an explanation of the observed change for inhabitants living within the larger Stavanger region but outside the central axis, especially challenging. Although the empirical patterns are consistent with the idea of relative deprivation, these findings could not be regarded as a strong test of the hypothesis at this stage. Further research, in alternative settings and with supplementary measures is needed.
Cultural and heritage tourism began to expand as a mass phenomenon in the 1970s and ’80s with a considerable economic and social impact. It was a consequence of the self-development of the tourism industry and its need for diversification (Bull, 1991). During the previous decades and stimulated by a long period of unbroken economic growth in most developed countries, tourism enjoyed a great expansion (Timothy, 2011). This was largely based on standardized products, mainly offered by tour operators through the travel agencies system. The result was an increase in the number of destinations and resorts. Over the years, many of them have followed a life-cycle profile, from involvement and consolidation, to stagnation and, in some cases, even decline (Butler, 1980). So, the need to adapt the current offer to a more exigent demand, fuelled by a rising competition with new destinations, developed the specializations of many tourism areas and the search for added-value products. The resulting scene is characterized by being much more dynamic and competitive, in which a multitude of specialized offers proliferate at lower costs. Tourism products can be segmented by travel motivation (business, holiday, health, academic or religion, among many other driving forces), by user groups (families, senior citizens, professional people or students), by destination (cities, coast areas, countryside regions or countries), by time (holiday seasons, weekends, special events or business periods), and by the level of maturity of the destination (more or less emergent, with larger or weaker touristic supply, level of social reputation).
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