This study investigates the willingness of homebuyers to pay for co-location with iconic architecture. Oak Park, Illinois was chosen as the study area given its unique claim of having 24 residential structures designed by world-famous American architect Frank Lloyd Wright, in addition to dozens of other designated landmarks and three preservation districts. This study adds to the limited body of existing literature on the external price effects of architectural design and is unique in its focus on residential architecture. We find a premium of about 8.5% within 50-100m of the nearest Wright building and about 5% within 50-250m. These results indicate that an external premium to iconic architecture does exist, although it may partially be attributable to the prominence of the architect
Den tette byens verdi. En litteratur- og metodestudie av den samfunnsøkonomiske verdien av byfortetting
Det pågår betydelig fortetting i mange norske byer og kommuner, ofte uten en helhetlig planlegging. Muligheter til gode løsninger kan dermed oversees, og verdier kan forsvinne. Det er også sannsynlig at fortetting ikke bare bringer med seg positive virkninger. Det er sannsynlig at i noen områder kan de positive virkningene være avtakende eller ikke-eksisterende, enten som følge av at det blir et for stort press på bygodene (infrastruktur, service, tjenester, uteliv, variert kulturtilbud, flere restauranter, spesialisert handel osv.) som følge av trengsel, eller at fortettingen er gjort uten helhetlig planlegging. Byfortetting kan innebære kortsiktige kostnader for samfunnet, for eksempel i form av høye tomtekostnader, og disse kostnadene er ofte lett synlige og enkle å beregne. Det er dermed viktig at også nytten av tiltak blir synliggjort i økonomiske termer. Det kan bidra til bedre forståelse for, og gi økte insentiver til å gjennomføre byfortetting. God byfortetting kan defineres av at den har en verdi for nåværende og kommende generasjoner. Mange er enige i at byfortetting har verdi og betydning for samfunnet, men den totale samfunnsnytten kan være vanskelig å måle. Økt kunnskap om verdien av byfortetting kan derfor føre til at det blir enklere å fatte gode og riktige beslutninger hvor man tidligere har undervurdert samfunnsnytten.
For å forbedre dette kunnskapsgrunnlaget har formålet med dette prosjektet vært å:
- Gjennomføre en forskningsbasert litteraturstudie over hva som finnes av verdsettingsstudier av byfortetting og elementer av byfortetting og byliv
- Oppsummere resultater om hvilke goder som er verdsatt, og hvilke verdier som er funnet for disse godene og tjenestene, og vurdere om disse kan overføres til andre sammenhenger (ved hjelp av verdioverføringsmetoder)
- Vurdere og gi en anbefaling om hvilke metoder som synes best egnet for verdsetting av denne typen goder.
Rapporten presenterer statistikk for musikkfestivaler og en mindre gruppe «ikke-musikk»-festivaler for året 2015. I noen tabeller og figurer er tall og data fra 2014-undersøkelsen tatt med i illustrasjonsøyemed og for å vise forskjeller i datagrunnlag for 2014 og 2015. Denne presentasjonsmetoden er ikke brukt for å si noe om utvikling eller endring mellom to år. Datagrunnlaget, ulik sammensetning av populasjon og det korte tidsintervallet gir ikke grunnlag for å si noe om eventuelle endringer.
|In a world of increasingly complex and distributed computer systems an effective Event Management Service (XEMS) is a key part of the necessary system management and administration infrastructure. The EMS must provide timely warning of impending problems, notify failing processes, identify problem areas in a system and possibly automatically fix them before service availability falls below acceptable levels. To achieve what is required, interoperability between systems in a distributed network is only one part of the solution; inter-comprehension of the key event data is also necessary. This Event Management Service (XEMS) specification satisfies all these requirements. It defines a programming interface which receives notifications in the form of events, and transports them reliably to applications. The Specification is in three parts: Part 1 describes the API including the model, architecture, data formats and interface definitions; Part 2 describes reference implementations for DCE and CORBA; Part 3 describes event structures for the basic event set.|
Festival management studies: developing a framework and priorities for comparative and cross-cultural research
|The purpose of this paper is to develop both a systematic framework and priorities for comparative and cross-cultural festival management studies, based on literature review and results of a four-country study. The research is based on four samples of festivals in Sweden, Norway, UK and Australia that are systematically compared. The survey is designed to profile the festivals in terms of vision/mandate, ownership, age, size, assets, venues used, decision-making structure and programs. Costs and revenues are examined in some detail, including trends in each category, Festivals' use of volunteers and sponsors are specifically addressed. Levels of dependence on a number of types of stakeholders and other strategic management issues are also explored. Respondents are also asked to respond to statements regarding challenges and threats to their festival and organization. The empirical research identifies important similarities and differences that exist within the UK, Sweden, Norway and Australia, by three ownerships types, in how festivals are organized, their operations and strategies, stakeholder influences and dependences, threats and strategies. In the recommended frameworks are five components: antecedents; planning and management; planned event experiences and meanings; outcomes and the impacted and dynamic patterns; and processes. Specific points of comparison are enumerated within each component, foundation theories and concepts are identified, and some research profiles suggested for each.|
|Sustainably managed music festivals have significant value and can provide a multitude of benefits to a healthy, sustainable and desirable society if their negative impacts are mitigated and positive impacts cultivated. To reach this great potential, sustainable event management of music festivals must become widely adopted and expanded as common practice. To drive this improvement of sustainable event management, there is a need to first understand the barriers and success factors event organizers face moving their music festivals toward sustainability. This study uses a research design of mixed quantitative-qualitative methods: a survey of thirty diverse music festival organizers across the United States and interviews with five selected survey participants. Research draws on pertinent literature from sustainability theory and practice, previous research on sustainable event management, existing strategies of sustainable events, and lessons from organizational change studies. Findings revealed seven key barriers and four success factors associated with sustainable event management of music festivals as well as three specific needs of event organizers to improve sustainable event management. With these findings, seven strategies are presented to help event organizers adopt and improve sustainable event management of music festivals. This study is significant because it fills an important gap in the academic literature on events and sustainability. Additionally, this study is immediately applicable to Untied States music festivals. The findings were drawn directly from the perspectives and experiences of event organizers, and the strategies are designed to be specifically applied to their sustainable event management work.|
|The goal of the bachelor’s thesis was to create an efficient and implementable marketing plan for the Animatricks Film Festival 2015. The Animatricks Film Festival is an annual animation-related festival held in Helsinki, Finland. The festival is organized by Palikka Ry, a non-profit organization. It was agreed upon to create a marketing plan for the next Animatricks Film Festival (2015) as there had been no previous one(s). The bachelor’s thesis concentrates on describing the concept of marketing and marketing plan in the chapter of theoretical basis. The chapter on implementation presents the practicalities of creating a marketing plan for the Animatricks Film Festival 2015. As a result, a marketing plan for the Animatricks Film Festival 2015 was created based on the needs and wants of Palikka Ry. The implementation of the marketing plan started in January 2015. As the thesis was finished before the festival was being held, no definite or concrete proof on the success rate of the marketing plan was discovered. The marketing plan is attached to the bachelor’s thesis however, it is confidential and not published. The marketing plan was intended to be used for the following the Animatricks Film Festivals as a foundation to build on more ideas.|
|The EFFE Guide is the festival guidebook celebrating the label and award recipients. It contains both inspiring articles on festival life as well as essential details on each festival taking part in this platform. Inclusion in the EFFE Guide makes festivals' information easily accessible to audiences, colleagues in the arts, artists, performing arts companies, public authorities at all levels, sponsors and the media.|
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