This article compares two forms of crowdfunding: entrepreneurs solicit individuals either to pre-order the product or to advance a fixed amount of money in exchange for a share of future profits (or equity). In either case, it is assumed that “crowdfunders" enjoy “community benefits" that increase their utility. Using a unified model, it is showed that the entrepreneur prefers pre-ordering if the initial capital requirement is relatively small compared with market size and prefers profit sharing otherwise. These conclusions have implications for managerial decisions in the early development stage of firms, when the entrepreneur needs to build a community of individuals with whom he or she must interact. This study also offer extensions on the impact of quality uncertainty and information asymmetry.
This article attempts to define and measure cultural industries in Sweden. It starts with a discussion of the definition and delineation of the term "cultural industries," arguing that a large range of goods and services can be considered culture industry products and that it is important to place the production and exchange of such products in the context of an industrial systems approach. The concept is then operationalized using Swedish data on employment and the activity of firms. The results suggest that the overall growth in both employment and the number of firms has been especially strong in the cultural industries. However, the number of active firms has been growing at a much faster pace than employment in these industries, indicating a quickly changing business environment. With regard to regional dimensions, Swedish cultural industries have a strong attraction to urban areas but an even stronger propensity to agglomerate. It is suggested that the spatial dynamics observed may be key to the development of the industries' competencies and success. In summary, the article presents the results of an extensive data analysis that found that cultural industries make an important contribution to the Swedish economy and labor market. It concludes by suggesting issues that need further quantitative and qualitative study.
This paper will focus on sport, outdoor life and physical activity at the Sami festival Riddu Riđđu. I will address how sport might have been implicated in the sovereignty claims of the indigenous peoples of the Norhern Cap, the Samis. The festival is organized every year in the village Manndalen in Northern Norway. I have studied outdoor life and sport activities offered to children and youngsters at the festival; Mánáidfestivála (3-13 years) and how these activities are introduced and experienced by volunteers, participants and parents. Through fieldwork during three years I contemplated how physical activities included in the festival create the indigenous people’s identities. I found a mixture between traditional and modern activities which have origins both locally, nationally and globally, influenced by different ethnicities and indigenous groups not only activities from Samis, Kvens or Norwegians. The physical activities can be classified in three groups; 1) Traditional games, 2) Work-educating activities, and 3) Sport activities. Festivals as phenomenon have qualities which might contribute in shaping of identities. Whether physical activities are shaping identity, community, cultural understanding and how the festival might build bridges between different ethnic groups locally, nationally and globally is studied in the light of Bourdieu’s theories about habitus and symbolic capital.
Formålet med denne rapporten er å utrede og kartlegge i hvilken grad det nasjonale virkemiddelapparatet rettet mot musikkindustrien har virkemidler som svarer til virksomheters behov. Virksomhetenes behov for finansiering av drift, kompetanseheving og ulike drivere og barrierer for utvikling, særlig i forhold til internasjonalisering og eksport har blitt vektlagt i analyser. Behov og ønsker er forsøkt avdekket gjennom en kvalitativ studie hvor 18 virksomheter, som har det til felles at de enten har mottatt Music Norways eksportprogram eller vært deltagere i det tilpassede FRAM programmet for musikkindustrien i regi av Innovasjon Norge og Music Norway, har deltatt.
Prosjektet er gjennomført i samarbeid med Music Norway og Buzzfond, som har bidratt med delfinansiering, kontakt med informanter og virksomhetene og personalressurser.
A comparison of results of three statistical methods to understand the determinants of festival participants' expenditures.
|The aim of the research reported upon in this study is to examine the impact of visitors’ socio-demographic and festival experience-related variables on expenditure levels and patterns of visits to festivals. Three statistical models including logit, OLS (ordinary least square) and Tobit models are employed to identify and examine the differences or similarities in results from three different approaches. A comparison of the three approaches using cross-section survey data generated differences in model fit. In addition, it was found that the set of independent variables which were significant in estimating festival visitors’ expenditures varied between the three models. As such the findings of this study suggest a singular statistical approach may be inferior to multiple ones in gaining a full understanding of the determinants of festival participants’ expenditure.|
In order to get a constructive non-Nordic view, Tom Fleming Creative Consultancy, a UK-based leading international Creative and Knowledge Economy consultancy , has been commissioned by the Nordic Innovation Centre (NICe) , on behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers, to develop this Green Paper. It builds on existing policy development to:Provide an overview of the current profile of the Region’s Creative Industries Introduce the current policy status of the Creative Industries Highlight key opportunities for growing the Creative Industries and maximizing the sector’s wider value Present a set of actionable policy recommendations for partners to pursue
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