The purpose of this note is to provide a more sophisticated understanding of the value of the Creative Industries and Economy by producing GVA estimates which are consistent with Nesta’s ‘Dynamic Mapping’ employment estimates.
Copyright Protection, Technological Change and the Quality of Products: Evidence from Recorded Music since Napster
Recent technological changes may have altered the balance between technology and copyright law for digital products. While file-sharing has reduced revenue, other technological changes have reduced the costs of bringing creative works to market. As a result, we don’t know whether the effective copyright protection currently available provides adequate incentives to bring forth a steady stream of valuable new products. This paper assesses the quality of new recorded music since Napster, using three independent approaches. The first is an index of the quantity of high-quality music based on critics’ retrospective lists. The second and third approaches rely directly on music sales and airplay data, respectively, using of the idea that if one vintage’s music is better than another’s, its superior quality should generate higher sales or greater airplay through time, after accounting for depreciation. The three resulting indices of vintage quality for the past half-century are both consistent with each other and with other historical accounts of recorded music quality. There is no evidence of a reduction in the quality of music released since Napster, and the two usage-based indices suggest an increase since 1999. Hence, researchers and policymakers thinking about the strength of copyright protection should supplement their attention to producer surplus with concern for consumer surplus as well.
This thesis is primarily based on a case study on how the Internet affects the advertising industry in Oslo, Norway, and on how the digitization of advertising adds to ourunderstanding of the geography of innovation and urban and regional development. The study argues that the Internet fundamentally changes and challenges the advertising industry, and that advertising merges into market communication and even user experience and product development. The interactive nature of the Internet and its parallel social and commercial worlds contribute to transcend the role of a traditional medium and to coalescence between production and consumption. Despite the fact that those involved in online and traditional advertising are located close to each other in Oslo, the extent of collective learning, knowledge externalities and innovation has been scarce. The study shows that the creative destruction of this industrial sector is ignited by actors outside the traditional advertising industry. Due to path dependency along one-way mass communication media incumbents within the advertising industry have left room for new actors, such as web agencies and technology consultants, to explore and take market share in online market communication services. The reconfiguration of market communication is regarded as the result of an industry mutation across advertising and ICT, and creates a need for bridging skills and competencies across creative, strategic and interactive domains. The implications of such an industry mutation across diverse sectors are used to discuss the evolutionary potential of the related variety perspective. The study argues that localized industrial change may be conceptualised in terms of a cyclical relationship between externalities from localisation economies and urbanisation economies respectively. The implications of the findings from the case study are in this way used to discuss more general drivers of urban and regional development.
The Commission Staff Working Document on ‘Design as a driver of user-centred innovation’analyses the contribution of design to innovation and competitiveness. The results are compelling: companies that invest in design tend to be more innovative, more profitable and grow faster than those who do not. At a macro-economic level, there is a strong positive correlation between the use of design and national competitiveness
Design Workshops of the World: The production and integration of industrial Design expertise into the product development and manufacturing process in Norway and the United Kingdom
To gain competitive advantage an increasing proportion of companies incorporate design into the product development process; it has become a critical determinant of competitive success. Design expertise is either provided internally or externally. Thus, in common with management consultancy, independent firms are increasingly providing design expertise to clients. Over the last ten years the British and Norwegian governments have emphasised the contribution made by industrial design to national competitiveness. This takes two forms: the export of design services, and the added value that comes from the incorporation of design into products and services. This paper explores the role of design services in the production process and undertakes a preliminary analysis of the structure and geography of the design industry in the UK.
Denna skrift utgör resultatet av ett seminarium ”KULTURARVET SOM RESURS FÖR REGIONAL UTVECKLING” som CERUM arrangerade i samarbete med Riksantikvarieämbetet den 16. maj 2002. Seminariet utgör en del i det forskningsprojekt med samma rubrik, som Riksantikvarieämbetet initierade 2001. Arbetet med seminariet har stärkt vår uppfattning om värdet av ett utbyte mellan olika forskningsinriktningar och regelbunden redovisning av empiriskt material. Målsättningen är att tillföra och utveckla hypoteser som kan stärka teoribildningen på området. Rapporten redovisar ett antal studier som ger läsaren en orientering över svenska arbeten och resultat samt möjliga forskningsinriktningar i framtiden.
Denne case-studien fra Harvard Business School ser på det norske moteselskapets forretningsmodell. Denne bli beskrevet som “a very unconventional "experience economy" business model in the fashion industry”. Studien tar for seg selskapets historie, deres kreative markedsføringsteknikker, hva som ligger bak merkevaren, hvor viktig den norske bakgrunnen er og forretningsmodellen.
Utgangspunktet for rapporten er at det er liten deltakelse fra tradisjonelle finansielle miljø i finansiering av norske filmer. I rapporten analyseres de økonomiske grunnene til hvorfor situasjonen er slik. Analysen er basert på opplysninger from Norsk filmfond om finansieringen av norske filmer som ble lansert i 2005, og på intervjuer med produsentene som hadde ansvaret for å produsere disse filmene.
Understanding the production and consumption of design expertise by small medium-sized firms: Some Evidence from Norway
This paper explores the ways in which industrial design services are organised, produced, and consumed by Norwegian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This includes exploring the geographies of this performance in terms of how consumers and producers of design expertise organize their activities. The paper also identifies different ways in which client firms utilize industrial design to develop or retain competitive advantage. The paper combines empirical data with the development of a theoretical contribution to the fields of product creation, enterprise competitiveness and the globalisation of production. The paper draws upon case studies of Norwegian firms of designers as well as client firms
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