Musikk

Consolidating the music scenes perspective

Bennett, A.
Poetics

The concept of scene has long been used by musicians and music journalists to describe the clusters of musicians, promoters and fans, etc., who grow up around particular genres of music. Typically, this everyday usage of scene has referred to a particular local setting, usually a city or district, where a particular style of music has either originated, or has been appropriated and locally adapted. Examples here would include Chicago blues, New Orleans jazz and Nashville Country music, as well as numerous lesser known instances of local musical innovation and production.

Since the early 1990s, the concept of scene has also begun to acquire currency as an academic model of analysis. Scene’s significance in this respect has resulted partly from the criticism and rejection of prior theoretical frameworks used in research on music, and the local, notably subcultural theory (see, for example, Clarke, 1981; Bennett, 1999), and also due to the influential work on ‘‘art worlds’’ and cultural industries (Becker, 1982). Peterson and Bennett (2004) observe as an academic research model that the concept of scene can usefully be subdivided into three categories: local (Cohen, 1991; Shank, 1994), trans-local (Kruse, 1993; Hodkinson, 2002) and virtual (Kibby, 2000; Bennett, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to assess the different ways that scene has been conceptualised in academic research as a means of understanding music as a ‘resource’ in contemporary everyday life. 

2004
Artikkel
Generell

Constructing Regional Advantage: Platform Policies Based on Related Variety and Differentiated Knowledge Bases

Asheim, B.,
Boschma, R.A.,
Cooke, P.
Regional Studies

This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sectors. The paper categorizes knowledge into ‘analytical’ (science based), ‘synthetic’ (engineering based) and ‘symbolic’ (arts based) in nature, with different requirements of ‘virtual’ and real proximity mixes. The implications of this are traced for evolving ‘platform policies’ that facilitate economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

2011
Artikkel
Generell

Consumption, culture and creativity

Power, D.,
Scott, A.
Routledge

The cultural economy has, in recent years, been the object of significant attention in studies of urban development. The rising importance of cultural activities in this regard is scarcely surprising given the increasing convergence between systems of cultural expression on the one hand and the economic order on the other (Lash and Urry 1994).

2010
Bokkapittel
Festival/arrangør

Contemporary Festival: Polyphony of voices and some new agents

Fjell, L.
Studia ethnologica Croatia, Zagreb

The concepts and roles of new, modern festivals of today are the most striking and the most visible within the field of culture. Alongside their popularity and multiple set of new “voices”, there come politics, money and business. Traditionally, this combination of thought and ideology would eventually escalate into a conflict of interests. Through empirical examples the author of this paper will give an outline of how such a conflict emerges by using the “model of conflict” by Eric Brahm. He will outline categories of agents within the field of festivals.

2007
Crotia
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør
2014
England
Bokkapittel
Festival/arrangør

Continuance commitment and reasons to quit: A study of volunteers at a jazz festival

Elstad, B.
Event Management

This article reports the results of a study of volunteers' continuance commitment and reasons to quit at a festival. The study of 221 volunteers at a large jazz festival in Norway indicated that both motivational factors and factors related to the festival context were important in explaining volunteers' continuance commitment. Furthermore, about 30% of the volunteers had considered quitting as a volunteer. Reasons why they had considered quitting as volunteers at the festival were also identified.

2002
England
Artikkel
Media

Cool, creative and egalitarian?

Gill, R.
Information, Communication and Society

The new media industries are popularly regarded as cool, creative and egalitarian. This view is held by academics, policy-makers and also by new media workers themselves, who cite the youth, dynamism and informality of new media as some of its main attractions. This paper is concerned with what this mythologized version of new media work leaves out, glosses over and, indeed, makes difficult to articulate at all. Themes include pervasive insecurity, low pay, and long hours but the particular focus of the paper is on gender inequalities in new media work. Despite its image as 'cool', non-hierarchical and egalitarian, the new media sector, this paper will argue, is characterized by a number of entrenched and all too old-fashioned patterns of gender inequality relating to education, access to work and pay. Moreover, a number of new forms of gender inequality are emerging, connected - paradoxically - to many of the features of the work that are valued - informality,autonomy,flexibility and so on. Drawing on a study of 125 freelance new media workers in six European countries, this paper explores these issues and argues that the new forms of sexism in new media represent a serious challenge to its image of itself as cool, diverse and egalitarian.

2002
Artikkel
Musikk

Copyright Protection, Technological Change and the Quality of Products: Evidence from Recorded Music since Napster

Waldfogel, J.
NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH

Recent technological changes may have altered the balance between technology and copyright law for digital products. While file-sharing has reduced revenue, other technological changes have reduced the costs of bringing creative works to market. As a result, we don’t know whether the effective copyright protection currently available provides adequate incentives to bring forth a steady stream of valuable new products. This paper assesses the quality of new recorded music since Napster, using three independent approaches. The first is an index of the quantity of high-quality music based on critics’ retrospective lists. The second and third approaches rely directly on music sales and airplay data, respectively, using of the idea that if one vintage’s music is better than another’s, its superior quality should generate higher sales or greater airplay through time, after accounting for depreciation. The three resulting indices of vintage quality for the past half-century are both consistent with each other and with other historical accounts of recorded music quality. There is no evidence of a reduction in the quality of music released since Napster, and the two usage-based indices suggest an increase since 1999. Hence, researchers and policymakers thinking about the strength of copyright protection should supplement their attention to producer surplus with concern for consumer surplus as well.

2012
Working Paper
Generell

Creating growth: Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EU

EY

The study summarizes and builds upon available information on the economic scale of the cultural and creative sectors at both national and European levels. Our report includes: • Comparative, qualitative and quantitative analyses aimed at understanding the economic role of the creative and cultural sectors in Europe • Key factors that will affect the global evolution of creative and cultural sectors and players • Ways by which creative and cultural activities can help encourage growth, youth employment and innovation and strengthen Europe’s position globally.

2014
Europa
Rapport
Generell

Creating innovation: Do the creative industries support innovation in the wider economy?

Bakshi, H.,
McVittie, E.,
Simmie, J.

This report presents the results of major new research into the role of the creative industries in stimulating and supporting innovation in the United Kingdom. Specifically, our research investigates and quantifies for the first time how artistic and creative activities link into the wider economy. We do so using data from the UK’s input-output accounts. The resulting measures are then brought together with quantitative data on innovation performance from the fourth UK Community Innovation Survey (CIS4) enabling us systematically to explore the relationships between the creative industries and innovation. Our approach aims to understand the links between the creative industries and other sectors in the wider economy; to examine which firms and industries are most ‘innovative’; and to bring these together to identify the extent to which strong business-to-business (B2B) linkages to the creative industries are associated with high levels of innovative activity and performance.

2008
UK
Rapport

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