This study aims to explore the central success factors behind the growth and prosperity of festivals. In line with resource dependency theory and the model of competitive strategies, it was assumed that successful festivals both adapt to, and influence, their contexts to their own advantage while also providing benefits for their environment. A capital framework was employed to examine the relationships between a successful festival and its context, employing a case study design and multiple methods. The case chosen was Extreme Sports Week, an annual extreme sports festival at Voss, Norway, which has become the largest extreme sports event worldwide during its 10 years of existence. It brings together sports and forms of cultural expression concentrating mainly on new trends in advanced sports activities and street culture music, combined with local food traditions. Factors in its success are the six “capitals” of the region: natural, human, social, cultural, physical, and financial. The festival balances the exploitation of these capitals, although indirectly with respect to natural capital, hence constituting an example of sustainability in festival management. Interestingly, the festival was successful in spite of very limited access to local financial capital. The analysis also revealed that a seventh capital construct – administrative capital – is relevant to the understanding of festival development. However, this form of capital was the only one where investments were perceived as problematic, and the festival repaid far more than the authorities had invested in the event.
Bok om betydningen av kunst i byer og tettsteder
The authors examine the relationship between investment behavior of individual investors on crowdfunding platforms and the fundraising outcomes in crowdfunded ventures. They focus on investment characteristics of a network of co-investors in a focal venture on its crowdfunding growth at three stages - early, middle, and late. Using data on crowdfunding of music artists’ ventures, they find that in addition to the factors identified in previous research, network characteristics such as the cliquishness of co-investors as well as the breadth of their co-investments in other artists play a significant role in determining the growth of investments in crowdfunded music ventures. Authors also show that this role is particularly important in the late phase, as compared to the early phase, of investment growth.
This study provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence regarding the impact of the online community on platform performance. It is theorized that online platforms, such as Kickstarter, consist not of a single community but rather a hierarchy of multiple, partially competing communities. The proposed framework allows to identify such communities’ changes and, consequently, to better identify pivotal members of online communities and predict their lifetime value as potential backers.
The document demonstrates the growth of the different community types and estimates their different impacts on crowdfunding performance over time. Interestingly, it is found that some communities, despite high participation rates, had negative impacts on crowdfunding campaign success. It is discussed managerial and practical implications of our theory and findings.
Competitive Dynamics of Southern California's Clothing Industry: The Widening Global Connection and its Local Ramifications
A general outline of the functional and spatial characteristics of the clothing industry in Southern California is sketched out. Two important trends are noted: the increasing design- and knowledge-intensive structure of the industry; and, the marked increase in off-shore sub-contracting by local manufacturers that has occurred in recent years. The predicaments and promises of this situation are explored. Will the industry simply continue to lose its employment base in the region? Will it succeed in making the transition to the status of a major world centre of fashion? It is argued that the southern California clothing industry is potentially capable of rising to the latter challenge, although it remains strongly overshadowed by the New York industry in terms of both fashion significance and commercial reach, and it also retains strong elements of its traditional underbelly of sweatshops. It is further argued that considerable effort needs to be invested in building social infrastructures to reinforce current positive trends in the industry. Given the right kinds of private and public response, it is submitted that Southern California is capable of becoming an international fashion centre on a par with New York, Paris, London or Milan.
The article departs from empirical studies of two competitive firms in an organisationally thin region in Norway. The main question in the article is how these firms have achieved global competitiveness. The article focuses its inquiry on how the firms organise their innovation activity, giving special attention to the firms’ organisational learning and absorptive capacity. It is found that find that workplace learning enables the firms to utilise knowledge in uncommon ways. The learning rests on specific organisational traits in the firms, such as broad participation, long-term on-the-job training, the use of practice-based knowledge in innovation projects, and links to national and global knowledge sources. The characteristics of thin regions indicate that these traits make up a generally applicable strategy in such regions.
Competitiveness, local production systems and global commodity chains in the music industry: entering the US market
This article is based on the results of interviews with music industry actors in the USA, and several other countries, that examined the industry, distribution and retail structures controlling ‘foreign’ music’s access to the world’s largest music markets. The paper uses the US market in order to demonstrate and trace the principal channelsand barriers that determine the conditions of market access for a musical product. It is shown that music distribution channels and retail environments exist in a networked
commodity chain dominated by a limited set of oligopolistic global firms. The journey of a foreign musical product to market in the USA is a difficult one through a
set of globally interlinked but highly fractured and localised commodity pools and channels. The paper concludes by suggesting that for firms and national industries
interested in exporting to the USA understanding the workings of these links between products and consumers is vital. The implications for regional industrial and
innovation policy of power over products’ commercial success being ‘located’ largely outside the local production centre are argued to be far-reaching. In summary, the
article is premised on the idea that if we are to understand success or failure in music sales and better develop regional production milieus we must first understand those
who control the distribution channels and retail environments that sales are made through. In such a task a revised version of the global commodity chain perspective
has much to offer researchers and policymakers alike.
As patterns of media use become more integrated with mobile technologies and multiple screens, a new mode of viewer engagement has emerged in the form of connected viewing, which allows for an array of new relationships between audiences and media texts in the digital space. This exciting new collection brings together twelve original essays that critically engage with the socially-networked, multi-platform, and cloud-based world of today, examining the connected viewing phenomenon across television, film, video games, and social media. The result is a wide-ranging analysis of shifting business models, policy matters, technological infrastructure, new forms of user engagement, and other key trends affecting screen media in the digital era. Connected Viewing contextualizes the dramatic transformations taking place across both media industries and national contexts, and offers students and scholars alike a diverse set of methods and perspectives for studying this critical moment in media culture.
Conocimiento y valoración del « crowdfunding » en Comunicación: La visión de profesionales y futuros periodistas
Based on online sociological surveys, this article explores the knowledge and experience of crowdfunding of Andalusian journalists and students of journalism. The results show that, although journalists and journalism students are familiar with the phenomenon of crowdfunding, there are training gaps and few of them have direct experience as initiators or funders of projects. However, the perception of the potential of this approach for innovation and entrepreneurship in journalism is positive, except for those issues related to the financial independence and viability in the medium-term of the projects which have been started. The use of students and journalists in the sample, moreover, allows to outline the first prospective view of crowdfunding.
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