Kunstnere

Art as collective action

Becker, H.
American Sociological Review

Art works can be conceived as the product of the cooperative activity of many people. Some of these people are customarily defined as artists, others as support personnel. The artist's dependence on support personnel constraiizs the range of artistic possibilities available to him. Cooperation is mediated by the use of artistic conventions, whose existence both makes the production of work easier and innovation more difficult. Artistic innovations occur when artists discover alternate means of assembling the resources necessary. This conception of an art world made up of personnel cooperating via conventions has implications for the sociological analysisof social organization.

1974
USA
Artikkel
Kunstnere

Artistentreprenører som "gjør det selv"

Lorentzen, A. H.
Fagbokforlaget

Kulturentreprenører jobber oftest innenfor kreative industrier. Det kulturelle entreprenørskapet er preget av tette koplinger mellom kultur og næring – og av estetisk snarere enn materielt forbruk. Både samfunnsplanleggere og forskere har i den senere tid rettet søkelyset mot kulturelt entreprenørskap. Kulturentreprenørene blir gjerne sett på som redningen for en positiv næringsutvikling i det senmoderne samfunnet. Boken går tett inn på ulike kategorier «kulturentreprenører» og analyserer hvordan deres arbeidshverdag er, på hvilke måter den gir mening, og hva som motiverer for et slikt risikofylt yrkesvalg. Denne boken er et resultat av et større forskningsprosjekt om kulturelt entreprenørskap, gjennomført av en forskergruppe ved Høgskolen i Telemark og Telemarksforsking.

2009
Norge
Bokkapittel
Musikk

Artists as entrepreneurs, Fans as workers

Wade Morris, J.
Popular Music and Society

This paper uses the increasing integration of social media into music making andmarketing to reflect on the work artists and their fans perform. While new technologies
are celebrated for making cultural production more accessible, there is also more pressure
on artists, as cultural entrepreneurs, to produce and distribute their own work. At the
same time, fans are facing greater invocations to participate through overt calls to become
co-creators or through more passive participation like behavior tracking. Fans cannot
really consume without working. Using an analysis of British musician Imogen Heap—
including press articles and data scrapes from Heap’s social media accounts—this paper
focuses on the changing occupational and creative roles for artists and fans and the
attendant implications for the circulation of cultural goods.
This paper uses the increasing integration of social media into music making and
marketing to reflect on the work artists and their fans perform. While new technologies
are celebrated for making cultural production more accessible, there is also more pressure
on artists, as cultural entrepreneurs, to produce and distribute their own work. At the
same time, fans are facing greater invocations to participate through overt calls to become
co-creators or through more passive participation like behavior tracking. Fans cannot
really consume without working. Using an analysis of British musician Imogen Heap—
including press articles and data scrapes from Heap’s social media accounts—this paper
focuses on the changing occupational and creative roles for artists and fans and the
attendant implications for the circulation of cultural goods.

2014
UK
Artikkel
Generell

Asociación Española de Crowdfunding

Asociación Española de Crowdfunding
Guía de buenas prácticas

In this document, the Spanish Crowdfunding Association has exposed all the details related with tax liabilities and formalities in Spain. They have taken into account all types of crowdfunding and points of view of donors and entrepreneurs.

2013
Spain
Report
Generell

Asociación Española de Crowdfunding

Asociación Española de Crowdfunding
Informe de la encuesta de la Asociación Española de Crowdfunding sobre las plataformas españolas de crowdfunding

This short report is focused on a survey carried out to some of the Spanish crowdfunding platforms. Results are brief and general, but useful to imagine the Spanish context.

2014
Spain
Report
Generell

Bare plankekjøring? Utvikling av en overordnet innovasjonsstrategi i BAE-næringen

Ørstavik, F.,
Bugge, M.,
Pedersen, T.E.

STEP har analysert bygg-, anleggs-og eiendomsnæringens situasjon, sentrale innovasjonsutfordringer og viktige hindringer for innovasjon. Rapporten skal bidra til næringens videre arbeid med å utvikle en innovasjonsstrategi hvor bedriftenes egen virksomhetsutvikling, og grunnleggende forskningsinnsats kan innrettes mot et felles sett av langsiktige mål. 

2003
Norge
Rapport
Festival/arrangør

Barents festivals and the development of local identity

Karlsen, S.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå

The aim of the present study was to investigate how three specific music festivals, situated in the Barents region, contributed to development of local identity in their respective host municipalities. The aim was further explored through three research questions focussing on 1) how the festivals cooperated with local agents; 2) how the festivals participated in and contributed to processes of glocalisation; and 3) what kinds of stories that were told through the festivals about their respective host municipalities. The festivals investigated was the Festspel i Pite Älvdal (Sweden), the Festspillene i Nord-Norge (Norway) and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali (Finland). The study was grounded in modernity theory as well as previous research on festivals’ contribution to development of local identity. Concerning the methodological aspects of the study, it was designed using an embedded multiple case-design, in which each of the festivals constituted one case and the three research questions functioned as the cases’ units of analysis. Hence, within-case as well as cross-case analysis was enabled. The empirical data consisted of field notes from participant observation of in all 58 festival events; interviews with the festivals’ directors and official representatives of the festivals’ host municipalities; and documentation in the form of festival programmes. The findings showed that all three festivals had extensive cooperation with a wide selection of local agents or stakeholders but also that the range and profoundness of this coopera tion seemed to depend on the festival management’s awareness of and focus towards the necessity of building and maintaining stakeholder relationships. This awareness seemed further to depend on the festival’s perceived self-identity, its degree of professionalism and institutional status. Regarding the participation in and contribution to processes of glocalisation, 17 aspects were found that were divided into the categories of reaching out; letting in; facilitating for meetings; and musical glocalisation. The festivals were seen to be narrators of history as well as telling meta-narratives about their host municipalities and thereby producing and reproducing collective self-images. The latter was exemplified in the Festspel i Pite Älvdal emphasising the local municipality as a centre in its own reality; the Festspillene i Nord-Norge strengthening the urban and displaying strong, international bonds; and the Jutajaiset Folklorefestivaali emphasising connections towards other peripheral and rural communities.

2008
Report
Festival/arrangør
2014
Bokkapittel
Film

Barriers to diversity in film: a research review

Bhavnani, R.
London: UKFC

The review has indicated that under-represented groups in the film industry are not always equitably represented or treated, whether in the workforce, among audiences, or in portrayal. The sector is dominated in leadership positions by white, male middle-aged, able- bodied men. However there is a business case for greater diversity in the industry, as well as a legal and ethical case.

2007
UK
Rapport
Generell

Baseline Study on Hong Kong's Creative Industries

CCPR (Centre for Cultural Policy Research)

The study is the first attempt by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government to define and map out the current state of creative industries in Hong Kong.

2003
Kina
Utredning

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