This book explores the organization of creative industries, including the visual and performing arts, movies, theater, sound recordings, and book publishing. In each, artistic inputs are combined with other, "humdrum" inputs. But the deals that bring these inputs together are inherently problematic: artists have strong views; the muse whispers erratically; and consumer approval remains highly uncertain until all costs have been incurred. To assemble, distribute, and store creative products, business firms are organized, some employing creative personnel on long-term contracts, others dealing with them as outside contractors; agents emerge as intermediaries, negotiating contracts and matching creative talents with employers. Firms in creative industries are either small-scale pickers that concentrate on the selection and development of new creative talents or large-scale promoters that undertake the packaging and widespread distribution of established creative goods. In some activities, such as the performing arts, creative ventures facing high fixed costs turn to nonprofit firms. To explain the logic of these arrangements, the author draws on the analytical resources of industrial economics and the theory of contracts. He addresses the winner-take-all character of many creative activities that brings wealth and renown to some artists while dooming others to frustration; why the "option" form of contract is so prevalent; and why even savvy producers get sucked into making "ten-ton turkeys," such as Heaven's Gate. However different their superficial organization and aesthetic properties, whether high or low in cultural ranking, creative industries share the same underlying organizational logic.
In this article, I will (1) reexamine and discuss the original framing of the term cultural industries; (2) briefly review some of the more recent complementary perspectives which expand the possible arenas for studying this topic; and (3) append a short note on how the more recent inclusion of nonprofit cultural products(e.g., symphonies, museums) in this framework poses interesting analytical questions and opportunities.
With Denmark’s Creative Potential, Culture and Business Policy Report the Government is setting its sights on interaction between culture and industry. Two worlds traditionally separate but which are now beginning to converge. This cultural and business policy report presents several recent studies of: • Culture as business • Creative interaction between the arts and commercial enterprises • Culture’s importance to regional development. The report suggests that closer interaction between culture and industry can trigger a new social dynamic, which will, at one and the same time, strengthen culture and the arts, offering new opportunities for development,and add impetus to industrial development marked by innovation, creativity and resourcefulness. The report doubles as a cultural and business policy strategy and vision, embracing an ideas catalogue putting forward 13 concrete initiatives to help release the tremendous potential inherent in interaction between culture and industry.
Det er behov for økt kunnskap om hvordan man skaper og realiserer mer attraktive og brukervennlige produkter, tjenester, merker og bedriftsprofiler med et egnet særpreg. Forskningen om dette er i en startfase, men et nyttig verktøy i flere bedrifter har vist seg å være industri- og kommunikasjonsdesign. Vår kunnskap om hvordan kvalifisert design utnyttes i organisasjoner, er foreløpig skrinn. Norske og internasjonale undersøkelser har like fullt dokumentert at en rekke fordeler kan oppnås. Spesielt er det verdt å notere at bak resultatene ligger en «skjult formue» av entusiasme, ekspertise, konseptuell kreativitet og samarbeidserfaring. Slik utvidet designkompetanse kan gi ny dynamikk i bedriftens innovasjonsprosesser.
Freelance workers and contract uncertainty: the effects of contractual changes in the television industry
Changes in the competitive and regulative conditions of British television over the 1980s and 1990s make for an environment of increased uncertainty for those who work in television. Broadcasting legislation, increased competition and technological advances have changed the working practices of the UK's 28,000 production workforce. The introduction of a 25 per cent quota of independent productions on all terrestrial channels, the implementation of Producer Choice in the BBC and the creation of a Network Centre in ITV, leading to a new commissioning process along with merger rationalisation and increasing competition have all contributed to constructing a workforce in which over 50 per cent are freelance and face much uncertainty. This paper focuses on some of the ways workers have experienced and responded to these changes by analysing the postal questionnaire and diary-data collected in an eight-wave panel study of 436 creative production workers in British television 1994-97, collected by the British Film Institute.This paper considers whether uncertainty is a problem and finds that it is for the majority of these workers. The question of what makes uncertainty a problem is also considered. Individuals were found to cope with uncertainty by diversifying the income sources, by collecting information, building informal networks and by thinking of leaving work in television.
The authors demonstrate how companies structure their work processes to incorporate creative employees' needs for autonomy whilst simultaneously controlling and coordinating their output
This study develops a conceptual model that explains the variation of interpersonal skills among volunteers. An overall perspective is the assumption that people can learn informally outside organizational borders. Both individual and situational characteristics are considered as important in explaining individuals behavior. The main learning mechanisms that are introduced in the model are: learning from practice, learning by modeling, and learning by information exchange.
The model developed was tested on volunteers at the Kongsberg Jazz Festival. The results from the analyses show that both individual and situational factors explain the variation of increased interpersonal skills. More precisely, motivation to learn, age, job challenge, and feedback from supervisors, are significantly related to the generation of increased interpersonal skills for the whole sample in the study. The study does not find any interaction effects. In the last section of the dissertation limitations and implications of the study are provided.
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