An increasingly important fraction of contemporary economic activity is devoted to the production of cultural outputs, i.e. goods and services with high levels of aesthetic or semiotic content. This kind of economic activity is especially, and increasingly, associated with a number of large cities scattered over the globe. A conceptual account of this phenomenon is provided on the basis of an exploration of the character of place-specific forms of culture generation and the agglomerative tendencies of many kinds of cultural products industries. The empirical cases of Los Angeles and Paris are briefly discussed. The dynamics of production, distribution and location of major cultural products industries are also examined. The paper ends with a brief allusion to the modalities of spatial differentiation of culture in contemporary capitalism and to a prospective cultural politics.
The cultural industries sector employed 4.5% of all employees in Britain in 1991; that is, it was equal in size to the construction industry, or to the combined employment in the agricultural, and the extractive industries. However, this sector has remained relatively underanalysed both in the geographical and in the planning literature. The author begins by defining the cultural industries production system (CIPS). In the second part he operationalises this definition with respect to secondary sources on employment in the CIPS in Britain. In the third part he considers the change in the employment structure of the CIPS between 1984 and 1991, and goes on to address the regional patterns of employment in the CIPS with particular emphasis upon London and the South East.
Volunteer Perception of Learning and Satisfaction in a Mega-Event: The Case of the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer
Volunteers' performance is a central success factor for many mega-events. This article focuses on volunteers' learning and satisfaction during the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer. The 50 students in the sample report an overall satisfaction with their participation. Important variables that were discovered related to volunteers' satisfaction include personal network, participation in the celebratory atmosphere, job-related competence, welfare issues, and job characteristics. With regard to volunteers' learning, they experienced increased social skills, job-specific competence, and knowledge about society. The results from this exploratory study clearly show the need for further research on volunteer management at mega-events.
Festivalkvalitet: en sammenligning av de besøkendes og de frivilliges vurderinger av kvaliteten av Kongsberg Jazzfestival
Denne studien handler om hvordan de besøkende og de frivillige funksj onærene oppfatter kvaliteten på årets utgave av Kongsberg Jazzfestiva l. Først blir kvalitetsbegrepet i en festivalkonstekst kort diskutert , og deretter presenteres den empiriske undersøkelsen. Konklusjonen h er er for det første at begge disse gruppene oppfatter kvaliteten som mer enn tilfredsstillende. For det andre er det stort samsvar mellom hvordan de frivillige tror de besøkende oppfatter de ulike kvalitets aspektene ved KJ, og hvordan de besøkende faktisk gjør dette. Og for det tredje viser det seg at ulike kvalitetsaspekter påvirker helhetsi nntrykket av KJ, både for besøkende og frivillige.
The first mapping of the Creative Industries in the UK was published in 1998 by Department for Culture, Media and Sport. This was widely recognized as the first such comprehensive analysis of the economic contribution of creative activities to the overall economic health of the country. The aim was to raise awareness of the industries, the contribution they made to the economy and the issues they faced. Inclusion criteria for Creative Industries was considered “those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property”. The mapping is done by sector, comprising of Advertising, Antiques, Architecture, Crafts, Design, Fashion, Film, Leisure software, Music, Performing Arts, Publishing, Software and TV and radio.
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