Finding ways to understand the nature of social change and social order—from political movements to market meltdowns—is one of the enduring problems of social science. This book draws together far-ranging insights from social movement theory, organizational theory, and economic and political sociology to construct a general theory of social organization and strategic action. This book proposes that social change and social order can be understood through what the book calls strategic action fields. It posits that these fields are the general building blocks of political and economic life, civil society, and the state, and the fundamental form of order in our world today. Similar to Russian dolls, they are nested and connected in a broader environment of almost countless proximate and overlapping fields. Fields are mutually dependent; change in one often triggers change in another. At the core of the theory is an account of how social actors fashion and maintain order in a given field. This sociological theory of action, what they call “social skill,” helps explain what individuals do in strategic action fields to gain cooperation or engage in competition. To demonstrate the breadth of the theory, the book makes its abstract principles concrete through extended case studies of the Civil Rights Movement and the rise and fall of the market for mortgages in the U.S. since the 1960s. The book also provides a “how-to” guide to help others implement the approach and discusses methodological issues.
Cultural Economy – which analyses the production, distribution and reception of symbolic contents - is dominated by the economics of welfare. This way of thinking marginalized the role of creativity and closed the corresponding analysis in a very static framework. Face to the need of an economic thought adapted to the creative economy, we should took this opportunity to distillate a more dynamic approach in cultural economics. Three examples are given (artistic markets, artistic skills, and macro-cultural policy) that demonstrate how cultural economics and creative economics should merge for their mutual benefit.
The term “creativity” is quite often used around us, especially lately, as today most people strive to be creative. The main reason for this is that creativity seems to represent an advantage in front of others. Entrepreneurs are extremely proactive and it is this orientation towards action which leads to their success in business, but also in their personal lives. The “creative entrepreneurship” has become a term which refers to the business activity of entrepreneurs belonging to the creative industries. The creative entrepreneur is the type of entrepreneur concerned with the creation and exploitation of creative or intellectual capital. He or she is an investor in his or her talent, but also in that of others. The aim of this paper is twofold: to offer an overview on creativity and creative entrepreneurship, and to make a comparative literature review of the creative entrepreneurs’ characteristics.
This study analyzes how hard and soft conditions influence the development of entrepreneurship in cultural and creative industries (CCIs). The study further examines what influence the context has on the effect of these conditions. A multiple multivariate regression analysis examines the importance of both the hard and soft conditions to explain the differences between the United Kingdom and the Mediterranean countries of Portugal, Spain, and Greece. The sample comprises 123 entrepreneurs from the four countries. The use of this method represents an important contribution to the understanding of entrepreneurship dynamics and for the further fine-tuning of entrepreneurship policies in CCIs in different contexts.
This paper assesses the coping mechanisms of creative SMEs in the context of recent economic downturns. It argues that such industries develop various forms of micro-resilience anchored in three main dimensions: production, space and people. By using the case of Digbeth and the Custard Factory as a lens to focus the discussion, it posits the argument that micro-resilience rests upon competitive advantages, including corporate reputation and the capacity of those industries to be flexible, adaptable and entrepreneurial. It also notes that space and locality, as intangible resources, act as leverages to provide an adequate working environment, allowing financial viability and clustering. Finally, it points out that creative workers and their informal networks favour a range of tactics allowing micro-resiliency.
This paper provides an exploratory study of how rewards-based crowdfunding affects business model development for music industry artists, labels and live sector companies. The empirical methodology incorporated a qualitative, semi-structured, three-stage interview design with fifty seven senior executives from industry crowdfunding platforms and three stakeholder groups. The results and analysis cover new research ground and provide conceptual models to develop theoretical foundations for further research in this field. The findings indicate that the financial model benefits of crowdfunding for independent artists are dependent on fan base demographic variables relating to age group and genre due to sustained apprehension from younger audiences. Furthermore, major labels are now considering a more user-centric financial model as an innovation strategy, and the impact of crowdfunding on their marketing model may already be initiating its development in terms of creativity, strength and artist relations.
The Role of Shared Emotions in the Construction of the Cyberculture: From Cultural Industries to Cultural Actions: The Case of Crowdfunding
Emotions have different origins and consequences. Mass media producers and advertisements transmit emotions to convince audiences to buy their products or services. In this context, citizens can feel or not feel the emotions presented by applying empathy because those emotions belong to a reality, which is not theirs. Since the widespread of the Internet, citizens are not just an audience, but are also users who create, publish, and share content through the wide range of platforms available in cyberspace. Within the virtual environment, emotions are shared and are visible through the collective creation and the rejection of political decisions. We will analyze how online communications provide the possibilities to share emotions, thereby allowing users to create and to share both emotions and knowledge through crowdfunding as a way to develop cultural products, actions, and initiatives that, without this financial form could be very difficult to achieve.
Re-Inventing the Book: Challenges from the Past for the Publishing Industry chronicles the significant changes that have taken place in the publishing industry in the past few decades and how they have altered the publishing value chain and the structure of the industry itself.
The book examines and discusses how most publishing values, aims, and strategies have been common since the Renaissance. It aims to provide a methodological framework, not only for the understanding, explanation, and interpretation of the current situation, but also for the development of new strategies.
The book features an overview of the publishing industry as it appears today, showing innovative methods and trends, highlighting new opportunities created by information technologies, and identifying challenges. Values discussed include globalization, convergence, access to information, disintermediation, discoverability, innovation, reader engagement, co-creation, and aesthetics in publishing.
- Describes common values and features in the publishing industry since the Renaissance/invention of printing
- Proposes a methodological framework that helps users understand current publishing issues and trends
- Focuses on reader engagement and participation
- Proposes and discusses the publishing chain, not only as a value chain, but also as an information chain
- Considers the aesthetics of publishing, not only for the printed book, but also for digital material
This paper explores the innovative performance of firms active in the creative industries (CIs). It identifies potential differentials in various innovation indicators between CI and non-CI young firms and examines drivers of the innovative performance of firms in the creative sectors. Our findings suggest that firms in the CIs outperform those in non-CIs both in terms of product innovation and R&D intensity, but not in terms of process and organisational innovation. Empirical analysis also suggests that the human capital of the founders as well as specific firm characteristics play a significant role in the innovative activity of firms in the CIs.
In the 1990s ,the rise of the creative industried as a discourse and instrument of policy signalled a desire amongst governments to harness cultural production to a renewed economic agenda.
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