This essay examines the consequences of technology for how music reaches people and for how people reach music. It is argued that new media technologies, particularly the Internet, create new territorializations of space and of affect. The spatial distribution of music wrought by new technologies provides an opportunity for cultural studies to bring distribution to the centre of the study of media. By so doing we can better understand cultural processes as not only industrial ones but ones of geography, audience and fan, and thereby de-centre production and consumption as the sites of cultural critique.
This article examines the significance of networking practices as a means of finding work and developing a career in the British independent television production sector (ITPS). The findings are based on qualitative research carried out between 2005 and 2006, based on in-depth interviews with 20 freelancers working in the ITPS.
Film policy has been one of the most important areas of cultural policy in Norway during the 2000s, with an ambition that the Norwegian film industry shall be top in the Nordic countries. In seeking to realize this goal the Ministry of Culture has initiated a major restructuring of both the administration of the Norwegian film industry and the system for subsidies. In this article we present the major changes in these areas from the 1990s until today. We look at the cultural policy arguments for initiating a restructuring of the film industry, and how this has affected the administration of the industry.
The music recording industry is a highly-concentrated five firm oligopoly. Much of the dominance achieved by larger tirms in the industry results from control over the distribution and promotion of the products of the industry. Alexander (1994b), predicted that new compression routines would facilitate the efficient transfer of digital music across the internet. MP3 compression routines have made such transfers relatively simple and efficient. While smaller new entrants have not yet been able to exploit this new technology in terms of market share, an element of uncertainty exists recarding the sustainability of the prevailing structure, due to large scale non-sanctioned file sharing. Despite the industry's legal efforts to suppress non-sanctioned file distribution, peer-to-peer networks may render these efforts futile. However, peer-to-peer networks must overcome structural and institutional problems, in particular, free-riding.
Places through products and products through places - Industrial design and spatial symbols as sources of competitiveness
The article explores the ways in which geography and place-based images and meaning are incorporated into products and business models. Such incorporation may be the result of a conscious process of image and identity construction in which designers deliberately exploit local, regional, urban/rural, and national constructions of place and nation.
The dynamics of ‘diasporic’ video, television, cinema, music and Internet use - where peoples displaced from homelands by migration, refugee status or business and economic imperative use media to negotiate new cultural identities - offer challenges for how media and culture are understood in our times. Drawing on research published inFloating Lives: The Media and Asian Diasporas, on dynamics that are industrial (the pathways by which these media travel to their multifarious destinations), textual and audience-related (types of diasporic style and practice where popular culture debates and moral panics are played out in culturally divergent circumstances among communities marked by internal difference and external ‘othering’), the article will interrogate further the nature of the public ‘sphericules’ formed around diasporic media.
Purpose– This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents. Findings – Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process. Research limitations/implications – Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures. Practical implications – A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools “tailored” to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice‐oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process.
Social capital has been hailed as a means of virtuous, effective and enjoyable productivity through which firms can flourish. But it also confines advantage to network members and discriminates against non-members. This paper, drawing on detailed qualitative research into work in the UK film and TV industry, reveals the advantages and the disadvantages of social capital.
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