Generell

Freelance workers and contract uncertainty: the effects of contractual changes in the television industry

Dex, S.,
Willis, J.,
Paterson, R.,
Sheppard, E.
Work, Employment and Society

Changes in the competitive and regulative conditions of British television over the 1980s and 1990s make for an environment of increased uncertainty for those who work in television. Broadcasting legislation, increased competition and technological advances have changed the working practices of the UK's 28,000 production workforce. The introduction of a 25 per cent quota of independent productions on all terrestrial channels, the implementation of Producer Choice in the BBC and the creation of a Network Centre in ITV, leading to a new commissioning process along with merger rationalisation and increasing competition have all contributed to constructing a workforce in which over 50 per cent are freelance and face much uncertainty. This paper focuses on some of the ways workers have experienced and responded to these changes by analysing the postal questionnaire and diary-data collected in an eight-wave panel study of 436 creative production workers in British television 1994-97, collected by the British Film Institute.This paper considers whether uncertainty is a problem and finds that it is for the majority of these workers. The question of what makes uncertainty a problem is also considered. Individuals were found to cope with uncertainty by diversifying the income sources, by collecting information, building informal networks and by thinking of leaving work in television.

2000
Artikkel
Generell

From Cultural to Creative Industries: Theory, Industry, and Policy Implications

Cunningham, S.
Quarterly Journal of Media Research and Resources

The paper will present a rationale for distinguishing between notions of cultural and creative industries which have implications for theory, industry and policy analysis. I do this from the standpoint of a researcher and analyst and also from a position of a corporate involvement in a substantial project to grow and diversify a regional economy through the development of its creative industries.

2002
Internasjonalt
Artikkel
Film

Hollywood versus the Internet: the media and entertainment industries in a digital and networked economy

Currah, A.
Journal of Economic Geography

The behaviour of oligopolistic firms is a source of considerable debate and concern, given their market power and ability to shape the development of new markets. A key area of debate concerns the scope for strategic adaptation in oligopolies; and in particular, the extent to which such large and otherwise successful firms ignore or marginalize important shifts in the marketplace. In this article, I critically evaluate these general theoretical issues through the lens of a specific, geographically bounded case study: the collision between Hollywood, a mature oligopoly comprising six studios, and the Internet, a decentralized architecture that has made possible peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing between networked computers. I argue that in a secure form (enforced by ‘digital rights management’ software), file sharing has considerable promise for all copyright owners, including the studios. I examine the oligopolistic behaviour of the studios in response to the Internet, and in particular, their response to an alternative mode of peer-based film distribution, oriented around legal, paid-for file sharing. I argue that the studios are trying to preserve the oligopolistic structure of the industry in a digital age by promoting an inefficient and restrictive ‘design’ for Internet distribution, oriented around centralized server-client architectures, which provides tight control over digital commodities and minimizes the disruptive impact of the Internet. This behaviour must be understood in light of the social and economic incentives that influence executives, as well as the context in which decision-making takes place. Nonetheless, their response also raises some worrying questions about the future shape of creativity, distribution and consumption in the film industry (and in the broader realm of media and entertainment) in a digital and networked economy. The article is based on over 150 interviews with elites in the studios and other related firms in the Los Angeles region.

2006
USA
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

How community ventures mobilise resources: Developing resource dependence and emneddedness.

Vestrum, I.,
Rasmussen, E.
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 19 (3) (pp .283-302)

Purpose – This paper aims to build theory on the resource mobilisation process of nascent community ventures (CVs). CVs are a type of social enterprises set up with the aim of creating social wealth within the communities in which they reside. Guided by resource dependence theory, the paper analyses how CVs introduce new ideas and activities into conservative communities. In particular, the paper explores how emerging CVs mobilise resources from local communities and how the resource mobilisation process shapes these new ventures. Design/methodology/approach – Longitudinal case studies were conducted on the emergence of two music festivals in rural communities in Norway. Findings – In the early stages of the venture formation process, the nascent CVs had an asymmetric dependence relationship with local resource providers because they lacked legitimacy and resources. The CVs were seeking to introduce new activities, and they simultaneously implemented two strategies to access resources: they adapted to and altered their environment. Throughout the resource mobilisation process, the CVs developed a joint dependence relationship with local resource providers. In later stages of the process, the CVs implemented strategies to increase their embeddedness and engage greater portions of the local communities in the ventures. Originality/value – The paper’s longitudinal approach to the resource mobilisation process made it possible to reveal how entrepreneurs and local resource providers interact over time to create new CVs. Building on resource dependence theory, the paper provides an explanation for how CVs are able to become embedded in their local communities while introducing new ideas that depart from existing practices.

2013
England
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

How Entrepreneurs develop relationships for community ventures within local communities.

Vestrum, I.
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing

Many communities have initiated new community-based ventures to develop social wealth. This study builds upon insights from the social embeddedness and entrepreneurial orientation approaches to explore how entrepreneurs develop relationships with resource holders in a community to mobilize resources for new community ventures. The findings derive from a longitudinal case study of two music festivals in rural communities in Norway. I found that the different backgrounds of the entrepreneurs promoted different types of resource mobilization strategies. Entrepreneurs who are embedded in their local communities perform an incremental resource mobilization strategy and build the venture upon existing resources and knowledge within the community. External entrepreneurs perform a more radical resource mobilization strategy by introducing new resources and knowledge to the community. The incremental resource mobilization strategy promotes more embedded relationships between the community venture and the local community, such as closer relationships with a higher level of trust, than the radical resource mobilization strategy. The resource mobilization strategies and the relationships of the venture within the local community co-evolved and changed over time. Key words: community entrepreneurs, community ventures, entrepreneurial orientation, social embeddedness, resource mobilization strategies

2015
England
Artikkel
Media

How long is a tweet? Mapping dynamic conservation networks on twitter using gawk and gephi

Bruns, A.
Information, Communication & Society

Twitter is now well-established as the world’s second most important social media platform, after Facebook. Its 140-character updates are designed for brief messaging, and its network structures are kept relatively flat and simple: messages from users are either public and visible to all (even to unregistered visitors using the Twitter Website), or private and visible only to approved ‘followers’ of the sender; there are no more complex definitions of degrees of connection (family, friends, friends of friends) as they are available in other social networks.Over time, Twitter users have developed simple but effective mechanisms for working around these limitations: ‘#hashtags’, which enable the manual or automatic collation of all tweets containing the same #hashtag, as well allowing users to subscribe to content feeds that contain only those tweets which feature specific #hashtags; and ‘@replies’, which allow senders to direct public messages even to users whom they do not already follow.
This paper documents a methodology for extracting public Twitter activity data around specific #hashtags, and for processing these data in order to analyse and visualise the @reply networks existing between participating users – both overall, as a static network, and over time, to highlight the dynamic structure of @reply conversations. Such visualisations enable us to highlight the shifting roles played by individual participants, as well as the response of the overall #hashtag community to new stimuli – such as the entry of new participants or the availability of new information. Over longer timeframes, it is also possible to identify different phases in the overall discussion, or the formation of distinct clusters of preferentially interacting participants.

2012
Artikkel
Festival/arrangør

How Nascent Community Enterprises Build Legitimacy in Internal and External Environments

Vestrum, I.,
Rasmussen, E.
Academy of Management. Annual meeting Proceedings 2014 (1

Community enterprises have become a widely used mechanism in addressing some of the problems associated with peripherality, under-employment and socio-economic decline in remote rural areas. New community enterprises require acceptance by key stakeholders both within and outside of the community in which they are located. Using a legitimacy perspective, we explore how emerging community enterprises are able to access resources needed to start and sustain their operations. Our findings derive from a longitudinal study of two music festivals that aim to improve the identity and economy of remote rural communities in Norway. By investigating the early stages of the community enterprise formation process, we identify three legitimacy building strategies: compliance with the internal (community) environment; conformance to the external (resource provider) environment; and manipulation of the internal (community) environment. Early in the start-up process emerging community ventures need to build legitimacy through compliance and conformance with the environment before they are able to change and manipulate the environment. External and internal legitimacy is built in an iterative process, making it possible for the venture to leverage external legitimacy into internal legitimacy. Rural community members are more confident in supporting new community enterprises if they perceive them as being credible among external stakeholders.

2014
N/A
Artikkel
Generell

Intermediaries and Imaginaries in the Cultural and Creative Industries

O´Connor, J.
Regional studies

This paper conducts an historical and conceptual review of the idea of ‘cultural intermediaries’ and sets up a contrast between the cultural and creative industries. It draws on theorizations of ‘economic imaginaries’ and reconstructs the respective imaginaries of cultural and creative industries. It suggests that the former was organized around the culturalization of the economy and the second around the economization of culture. Nevertheless, there are complicities between them, not least in the contention that a new set of economic developments would redeem the traditional promises of culture.

2013
Artikkel
Generell

Kultur som næring - møter som sammenstøter?

Olsen, E.F.,
Kramvig
Magma

Kulturnæringen blir regnet som en vekstnæring som både skal generere økonomisk vekst og løse sentrale samfunnsmessige utfordringer. I denne artikkelen ser vi kritisk på hvordan ofentlige institusjoner søker å organisere det mulige verdiskapningspotensialet som koblingen mellom kultur og næring har. I tillegg vil vi lansere noen antagelser om hvilke restriksjoner dette kan gi for de etableringene som skjer i randsonene til kunst og kulturfeltet.

2009
Norge
Artikkel
Generell

Learning Economies

Lundvall, B. Å.,
Johnson, B.
Journal of Industrial Studies

Modern economies can be characterised as ‘learning economies’ in which knowledge is the crucial resource and learning is the most important process. Different kinds of learning and economically relevant types of knowledge can likewise be identified. It is argued that pure market economies, if such existed, would have severe problems in terms of learning and innovation. The ‘learning economy’ is a mixed economy in a fundamental sense.

1994
Artikkel

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